Paul Ezra Rhoades (1 Viewer)

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Banned
Paul Ezra Rhoades




Classification: Serial killer
Characteristics: Rape - Robberies
Number of victims: 6
Date of murders: 1985 - 1987
Date of arrest: March 25, 1987
Date of birth: January 18, 1957
Victims profile: Christine Gallegos, 16 / Carla Maxwell, 20 / Lisa Strong, 25 / Stacy Baldwin, 21 / Nolan Haddon, 20 / Susan Michelbacher, 34
Method of murder: Shooting
Location: Utah/ldaho, USA
Status: Sentenced to death in Idaho in March 1988. Executed by lethal injection in Idaho on November 18, 2011



43rd murderer executed in U.S. in 2011
1277th murderer executed in U.S. since 1976
1st murderer executed in Idaho in 2011
2nd murderer executed in Idaho since 1976

Summary:

Rhoades was convicted in three separate kidnapping and murder cases. For the murders of Susan Michelbacher and Stacy Baldwin, Rhoades was sentenced to death, and for the murder of Nolan Haddon he received an indeterminate life sentence based on a conditional plea.

February 28, 1987, 21 year old Stacy Dawn Baldwin was abducted while working at the Red Mini Barn convenience store in Blackfoot. She was then taken to a secluded location and shot several times. She died approximately an hour and a half later.

March 17, 1987 - Nolan Haddon, a 23 year old student, was shot five times while working at Buck's convenience store in Idaho Falls. His body body was found in the store's walk-in cooler.

March 19, 1987 - Susan Michelbacher, 34, a special education teacher, was abducted in a parking lot at 7 a.m., forced to withdraw money from her checking account, driven to a rural location, raped and shot nine times, resulting in her death.

Rhoades was a high school dropout who began drinking at the age of 10, suffered polio as a child, and developed a serious methamphetamine addiction as an adult.

Citations:

State v. Rhoades, 120 Idaho 795, 820 P.2d 665 (Idaho 1991). (Baldwin Direct Appeal)
State v. Rhoades, 121 Idaho 63, 822 P.2d 960 (Idaho 1991). (Michelbacher Direct Appeal)
State v. Rhoades, 135 Idaho 299, 17 P.3d 243 (Idaho 2000). (Baldwin PCR)
State v. Rhoades, 148 Idaho 247, 220 P.3d 1066 (Idaho 2009). (Haddon PCR)
Rhoades v. Henry, 638 F.3d 1027 (9th Cir. 2011). (Baldwin Habeas)
Rhoades v. Henry, 598 F.3d 511 (9th Cir. 2010). (Haddon Habeas)
Rhoades v. Henry, 611 F.3d 1133 (9th Cir. 2010). (Michelbacher Habeas)

Final/Special Meal:

Rhoades was offered hot dogs, sauerkraut, mustard, ketchup, onions, relish, baked beans, veggie sticks, ranch dressing, fruit with gelatin and strawberry ice cream cups — the same meal that was offered to all Idaho Maximum Security inmates.

Final Words:

"To Bert Michelbacher, I am sorry for the part I played in your wife's death. For Haddon and Baldwin, I can't help you. You still have to keep looking. I'm sorry for your family. I can't help you. I took part in the Michelbacher murder, I can't help you guys. I'm sorry." Rhodes then told his mom "goodbye." He then turned to the executioner or the warden and uttered, "I forgive you, I really do."

ClarkProsecutor.org

Idaho Department of Correction

Rhoades' Death Warrant Carried Out

BOISE, November 18, 2011 – Director Brent Reinke made the following statement to the media following today’s execution procedures. “Today, the Idaho Department of Correction carried out the court-order death warrants issued against Paul Ezra Rhoades for the crimes of first-degree murder and first degree kidnapping in Bonneville and Bingham counties. Paul Ezra Rhoades was pronounced dead at 9:15 a.m.”

Biographical information

Sex: male
Height: 6’ 2”
Weight: 259 lbs
Eyes: hazel
Hair: brown
Ethnicity: white
Complexion: fair
Birth date: 01/18/1957
Birthplace: Idaho Falls, ID

Rhoades' Case Summary

On January 26, 1988, Paul Ezra Rhoades, IDOC #26864, was found guilty in the 7th Judicial District Court for Bonneville County of the crimes of first degree murder and first degree kidnapping.

On March 4, 1988, the 7th Judicial District Court for Bonneville County made and entered its findings of the Court in considering the death penalty, finding that Rhoades is guilty of murder in the first degree and kidnapping in the first degree and imposing the sentence of death.

On March 11, 1988, Rhoades was found guilty in the 7th Judicial District Court for Bingham County of the crimes of first degree murder and first degree kidnapping.

On May 13, 1988, the 7th Judicial District Court for Bingham County made and entered its findings of the Court in considering the death penalty, finding that Rhoades is guilty of murder in the first degree and kidnapping in the first degree and imposing the sentence of death.

On October 11, 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear Rhoades' case.

On October 19, 2011, the IDOC served Rhoades with a death warrant as ordered by Seventh District Judge Jon J. Shindurling. The warrant ordered that Rhoades be executed on November 18, 2011.

On November 4, 2011, the Idaho Commission of Pardons and Parole decide to deny the petition for a commutation hearing submitted on behalf of Rhoades.

On November 14, 2011, a U.S. Magistrate Judge denied a stay of execution.

On November 16, 2011, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals denied an emergency stay.

On November 18, 2011, Rhoades was executed by lethal injection.

Planned schedule for November 18, 2011

4:00 a.m. Media center opens to pre-approved news media personnel
5:45 a.m. Selection of news media witnesses
6:00 a.m. Short news media briefing by IDOC Director Brent Reinke
7:00 a.m. IDOC van available for transport to demonstration area
7:15 a.m. News media witnesses transported to Idaho Maximum Security Institution
7:20 a.m. Offender is moved from isolation cell to execution chamber
7:30 a.m. IDOC van returns from demonstration area
7:45 a.m. Witnesses are escorted into execution chamber
8:00 a.m. IMSI’s warden reads death warrant to offender and witnesses
8:03 a.m. Warden asks offender if he wishes to make a final statement
8:07 a.m. IDOC’s director re-confirms that no legal impediments exist
8:10 a.m. Administration of chemicals begins
8:30 a.m. Coroner enters chamber, examines the condemned and pronounces death
9:30 a.m. News media briefing by IDOC Director Brent Reinke and media witnesses
10:30 a.m. Demonstration area closes
1:00 p.m. Media center closes

Paul Ezra Rhoades: Timeline

KTVB.com

February 28, 1987 - Stacy Baldwin, 21, was shot after being abducted while working at the Red Mini Barn convenience store in Blackfoot. She put up a fight as Rhoades tried to sexually assault her. He shot her in the back as she was running away.

March 17, 1987 - Nolan Haddon, 23, was shot while working at Buck's convenience store in Idaho Falls. He was a student at a technical-vocational school. Haddon's body was found in the store's walk-in cooler.

March 19, 1987 - Susan Michelbacher, 34, was abducted in grocery store parking lot at 7 a.m., raped and shot to death.

March 25, 1987 - Paul Ezra Rhoades crashed his mother's car near Wells, Nevada, and walked to a nearby casino. Inside his car, police found the weapon and the same bullets used in the three murders. Detectives located Rhoades, playing blackjack in a casino.

March 24, 1988 - Rhoades was sentenced to death for the murder of Susan Michelbacher by Seventh District Judge Larry M. Boyle.

May 13, 1988 - Rhoades was sentenced to death by Seventh District Judge James Herndon for the murder of Stacy Baldwin.

February 15, 1991 - The Idaho Supreme Court affirmed Rhoades' conviction and sentence in the Baldwin murder.

November 14, 1991 - The Idaho Supreme Court affirmed Rhoades' conviction and sentence.

May 24, 2007 - U.S. District Judge Edward Lodge denied Rhoades' petition for a writ of habeas corpus.

February 9, 2011 - The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals denied Rhoades' petition for rehearing in the Baldwin case.

October 11, 2011 - The United States Supreme Court denied Rhoades' petition for certiorari.

Nov. 15, 2011: Attorneys for Rhoades filed an emergency appeal to the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, claiming that Idaho's new lethal injection protocol is likely to be botched, causing him to suffer excruciating pain in violation of the 8th Amendment.

Nov. 16, 2011: The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals denies Rhoades' plea to stop the scheduled execution of Rhoades. His lawyer argued Idaho's new lethal injection policy is flawed and results in cruel and unusual punishment.

Idaho executes inmate for 1987 slayings

By Rebecca Boone - IdahoStatesmn.com

Novemeber 18, 2011

BOISE, Idaho — Idaho prison officials executed Paul Ezra Rhoades on Friday for his role in the 1987 murders of two women, marking the state's first execution in 17 years.

Rhoades, 54, was declared dead at 9:15 a.m. at the Idaho Maximum Security Institution after being administered three separate drugs that make up the state's new lethal injection protocol. In his final words, Rhoades apologized for one of the murders, bid goodbye to his mother, and forgave state officials for the execution. "I forgive you. I really do," he said.

Rhoades was convicted in the kidnapping and murders of 34-year-old Susan Michelbacher and 21-year-old Stacy Dawn Baldwin. He was also sentenced to life in prison for the murder of 20-year-old Nolan Haddon.

The execution was witnessed by representatives of all three of the victims' families, Rhoades' mother, Pauline Rhoades, and four members of Idaho media. It appeared to go according to protocol, witnesses said. Rhoades delivered his final statement while lying on his back, strapped to a table. He seemed antsy, occasionally tapping his hand on the table. In a clear, loud voice, Rhoades apologized to Michelbacher's husband for her murder but did not take responsibility for the other two slayings. "To Bert Michelbacher, I'm sorry for the part I played in your wife's death," he said. Michelbacher did not attend the execution; but friends of the Michelbacher family were in attendance. "For Haddon and for Baldwin, you still have to keep looking. I can't help you," Rhoades said. "I'm sorry for your family. I can't help you."

After that statement, Baldwin's brother quietly said, "He lied the whole way through." Julie Haddon, Nolan Haddon's mother, commented, "What a coward." The time from initial injection to declaration of death was 22 minutes.

Brian Edgerton, a long-time family friend of the Michelbachers, told the AP after the execution that he felt a sense of relief, as well as continued grief over Susan Michelbacher's murder. He helped search for Michelbacher after she was reported missing, and said that everyone who knew her was devastated. "It's amazing how much is still there after all this time," Edgerton said. "A psychologist said there's always going to be a gnawing pain - it never completely heals. This helps a lot to move on and do the best we can to go forward." The other victims' family members seemed to feel the same way, he said. "I think that was felt by several of the families - a sense of peace and closure," Edgerton said.

Rhoades' attacks on Michelbacher, Baldwin and Haddon were brutal and his death was long overdue, Edgerton said, calling the execution "the appropriate, compelling and lawful consequence of these heinous crimes." The killings of Michelbacher, Baldwin and Haddon occurred during a three-week span in the winter of 1987. Prosecutors said Rhoades snatched Michelbacher, a special education teacher, into his van, raped her, shot her nine times and continued the sexual assault either as she lay dying or after she was already dead. Baldwin died in similar fashion. The newlywed and convenience store worker was abducted at gunpoint and taken to a remote area where prosecutor said he intended to sexually assault her. She fought back, and as she was scrambling away on all fours, he shot her twice and left her to die alone in the snow. Haddon also worked at a convenience store. He had long hair, and investigators speculated that Rhoades may have mistaken him for a young woman because of his blond locks. In any case, Rhoades robbed the convenience store, shooting Haddon five times and leaving him for dead in a walk-in cooler. Haddon died several hours later.

Rhoades, an Idaho Falls native, was the first Idaho inmate to be executed since 1994 and the only person to be involuntarily put to death in the state since 1957. The last inmate to be executed gave up all of his remaining appeals and asked the state to carry out his lethal injection.

The execution was the target of protests by capital punishment activists outside the prison south of Boise. Early Friday, about 50 people braved the cold and wind to protest at the prison's entrance. Some of them sat on the ground in silence, while others prayed collectively and waved signs with messages such as "What Would Jesus Do?" Across the street, about a half-dozen people gathered in a fenced-off area designated for supporters of the death penalty.

Rhoades admitted committing the murders, but he and his lawyers have vigorously appealed his case and Idaho's new execution protocols and procedures. On Thursday, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals denied a request for a full judge's panel to review their appeal, and Rhoades' attorneys also filed a last-ditch appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. The high court cleared the way for the state to proceed.

A section of the state's protocol that barred media witnesses from viewing the first part of the execution was also subject to a separate challenge. Under the state's procedure, media witnesses were not allowed to see the execution team bring Rhoades into the chamber, secure him or insert the IVs. Media cited a 2002 California case in which the 9th U.S. Circuit Court ruled the public - through media representatives - had a First Amendment right to view an execution in its entirety. The Department of Correction rejected requests from various Idaho newspapers, The Associated Press and broadcast groups to change the policy in the days leading up to the execution.

Rhoades, who is a diabetic, was in fair health during his final days, though he was anxious about the coming execution, said Ray, the corrections spokesman. The department planned to cremate his body after the execution and give the remains to Rhoades' attorney, Oliver Loewy.

Rhoades was a high school dropout who began drinking at the about the age of 10, suffered polio as a child and developed a serious methamphetamine addiction as an adult.

Rhoades defiant to the end

Paul Rhoades apologized for one murder but told the other two families, ‘I can’t help you.’

By Rebecca Roone - IdahoStatesman.com

November 19, 2011

Idaho prison officials executed Paul Ezra Rhoades on Friday for his role in the 1987 murders of two women, marking the state’s first execution in 17 years. Rhoades, 54, was declared dead at 9:15 a.m. at the Idaho Maximum Security Institution after being administered the three drugs that make up the state’s new lethal injection protocol. In his final words, Rhoades said he was sorry for one of the murders, bid goodbye to his mother and forgave state officials for the execution. “I forgive you. I really do,” he said.

Rhoades was convicted in the kidnapping and murders of 34-year-old Susan Michelbacher and 21-year-old Stacy Dawn Baldwin. He was also sentenced to life in prison for the murder of 20-year-old Nolan Haddon. The execution was witnessed by representatives of all three of the victims’ families; Rhoades’ mother, Pauline Rhoades; and four Idaho reporters. It appeared to go according to protocol, witnesses said.

A CLEAR VOICE

Rhoades delivered his final statement while lying on his back, strapped to a table. He seemed antsy, occasionally tapping his hand on the table. In a clear, loud voice, Rhoades apologized to Michelbacher’s husband for her murder but did not take responsibility for the other two slayings. “To Bert Michelbacher, I’m sorry for the part I played in your wife’s death,” he said. Michelbacher did not attend the execution, but friends of the Michelbacher family were in attendance. “For Haddon and for Baldwin, you still have to keep looking. I can’t help you,” Rhoades said. “I’m sorry for your family. I can’t help you.”

After that statement, Baldwin’s brother quietly said, “He lied the whole way through.” Julie Haddon, Nolan Haddon’s mother, commented, “What a coward.” The time from initial injection to declaration of death was 22 minutes.

Brian Edgerton, a long-time family friend of the Michelbachers’, told the AP after the execution that he felt a sense of relief, as well as continued grief over Susan Michelbacher’s murder. He helped search for Michelbacher after she was reported missing, and said that everyone who knew her was devastated. “It’s amazing how much is still there after all this time,” Edgerton said. “A psychologist said there’s always going to be a gnawing pain — it never completely heals. This helps a lot to move on and do the best we can to go forward.” The other victims’ family members seemed to feel the same way, he said. “I think that was felt by several of the families — a sense of peace and closure,” Edgerton said.

‘HEINOUS CRIMES’

Rhoades’ attacks on Michelbacher, Baldwin and Haddon were brutal, and his death was long overdue, Edgerton said, calling the execution “the appropriate, compelling and lawful consequence of these heinous crimes.” The killings of Michelbacher, Baldwin and Haddon occurred during a three-week span in the winter of 1987. Prosecutors said Rhoades snatched Michelbacher, a special education teacher, into his van, raped her, shot her nine times and continued the sexual assault either as she lay dying or after she was already dead. Baldwin died in similar fashion. The newlywed and convenience store worker was abducted at gunpoint and taken to a remote area where prosecutors said he intended to sexually assault her. She fought back, and as she was scrambling away on all fours, he shot her twice and left her to die alone in the snow. Haddon also worked at a convenience store. He had long hair, and investigators speculated that Rhoades may have mistaken him for a young woman because of his blond locks. In any case, Rhoades robbed the convenience store, shooting Haddon five times and leaving him for dead in a walk-in cooler. Haddon died several hours later.

VIGOROUS APPEALS

Rhoades, an Idaho Falls native, admitted committing the murders, but he and his lawyers vigorously appealed the case and Idaho’s new execution protocols and procedures. On Thursday, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals denied a request for a full judge’s panel to review their appeal, and Rhoades’ attorneys also filed a last-ditch appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. The high court cleared the way for the state to proceed. The last inmate to be executed in Idaho, in 1994, gave up all of his remaining appeals and asked the state to carry out his lethal injection. A section of the state’s protocol that barred media witnesses from viewing the first part of the execution was also subject to a separate challenge. Under the state’s procedure, media witnesses were not allowed to see the execution team bring Rhoades into the chamber, secure him or insert the IVs.

FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHT TO VIEW DEATH

Media cited a 2002 California case in which the 9th U.S. Circuit Court ruled the public — through media representatives — had a First Amendment right to view an execution in its entirety. The Department of Correction rejected requests from the Statesman and other Idaho newspapers, The Associated Press and broadcast groups to change the policy in the days leading up to the execution. Rhoades, who was a diabetic, was in fair health during his final days, though he was anxious about the coming execution, said Correction Department spokesman Jeff Ray. The department planned to cremate his body after the execution and give the remains to Rhoades’ attorney, Oliver Loewy.

Rhoades was a high school dropout who began drinking at about the age of 10, suffered polio as a child and developed a serious methamphetamine addiction as an adult.

Paul Ezra Rhoades’ last hurtful words

By Kevin Richert - IdahoStatesman.com

November 19, 2011

In his last moments on the planet — 24 years removed from a three-week spree of unspeakable murderous violence — Paul Ezra Rhoades seized upon his one final chance to inflict harm upon his victims’ loved ones. Rhoades accepted blame for his role in the killing of Susan Michelbacher, an Idaho Falls schoolteacher. His role, implying he did not act alone in her abduction, rape and shooting. He said the families of Stacy Dawn Baldwin and Nolan Haddon need to keep looking for a killer. Rhoades managed to say he forgave the state workers who were about to inject him with a cocktail of lethal drugs. His mercy, still, never extended to the families of his victims. Even in his final, hurtful moments. Final moments that are given added weight, and added public attention, when we as a society choose to carry out the death penalty. Idaho did not kill an innocent man Friday. On that, I have no doubt. Even as one who opposes the death penalty, I can’t feel sadness for Rhoades’ death. I do feel sadness for the platform that execution affords Rhoades. I also don’t think you can blame the media for broadcasting Rhoades’ words. The friends and family members who witnessed Rhoades’ execution heard it for themselves.

Wherever you stand on the death penalty, it’s impossible not to feel first for those who knew and loved Rhoades’ victims. That, it seems, is simply a prerequisite to being a member of the human race. I cannot begin to imagine what they have endured for 24 years, nor would I ever want to. It’s no one’s place to judge whether they are feeling, to use the overused phrase, a sense of closure. I only feel sorrow for them, especially in light of what they had to hear Friday morning.

AND MEANWHILE, ON THE MAINLAND ...

Before Idaho carried out its first execution in 17 years, Gov. Butch Otter had spent much of the week in Maui at a conference. Bankrolled by the California Independent Voter Project, attendees at the Maui “Business and Leader Exchange” discussed presidential politics, reported Betsy Russell of the Spokane Spokesman-Review. The conference was held at the Fairmont Kea Lani Resort, she wrote, “a beachfront spread with three swimming pools, a 140-foot water slide and an array of luxury amenities.”

Back in Idaho, Otter released this statement Friday: “My thoughts and prayers are with the victims, their loved ones, the mother of Paul Ezra Rhoades and everyone who has been impacted by these crimes. Mr. Rhoades took full and unfettered advantage of his right to due process of law for more than 20 years. That process has run its course and Mr. Rhoades has been held accountable for his actions. The state of Idaho has done its best to fulfill this most solemn responsibility with respect, professionalism and most of all dignity for everyone involved.”

Nice of Otter to check in. This execution was the first to occur under the governor’s watch; an event of such magnitude should supercede a conference in Hawaii.

Idaho inmate Paul Ezra Rhoades executed

By Jay Michaels - Kmvt.com

Nov 19, 2011

BOISE, ID (KMVT) This morning the first person to be executed in Idaho in 17 years received a lethal injection and died at the State Penitentiary south of Boise. The inmate in question was charged with three Southeastern Idaho murders almost 25 years ago.

Paul Ezra Rhoades was sentenced to death for the 1987 kidnapping and murders of 34 year old Susan Michelbacher and 21 year old Stacy Dawn Baldwin. Following the 1987 murder of 20 year old Nolan Haddon, Rhoades was also sentenced to life in prison without parole. At 9:15 a.m. this morning Rhoades, now 54 years old, was the first person executed in Idaho since 1994 and the only person to be involuntarily put to death in the state since 1957, the year he was born.

Local resident Dave Sylvester says, "I don't look at it as punishment. I just figure that person is so miserable, sitting there. I think that I would choose the death sentence, if it came down to it for myself." Pastor Pedro Contreres says, "To me 20, 30, 50 years or maybe lifetime in prison, isn't that enough? The person can repent, and turn their life for the good one."

Local viewers also posted comments on KMVT's Facebook page, as well. Jennifer says, "If it had been your mother, sister, wife, or girlfriend, you would want justice. Him in a prison cell with tv and free food is not justice." Ivan says, "I don't want to keep paying for repeat offenders to get another chance to do the right thing. I've been through the system and I had help. The difference is I took the help I was given and made something of myself!" And Sarah says, "Life is harder because life is something you have to deal with. ...Don't get me wrong, he got what he deserved, but he also got it easy."

Rhoades addresses the victims' families, his mother, and executioners in final statement

By Kelsey Jacobson - Ktvb.com

Nov 19, 2011

BOISE -- Paul Ezra Rhoades was confirmed dead at 9:15 a.m. Friday. Rhoades was killed by a lethal injection administered at 9:05 a.m.

The delay

The execution was scheduled to take place at 8 a.m. That was delayed after a motion was filed in court at 3 a.m. Friday. It took about a half hour for the motion to be reviewed. Shortly after that review, the Idaho Department of Corrections announced the execution would take place at 9:05 a.m., 55 minutes late. "It was occasioned by a motion of stay that was filed at about 3 a.m. this morning," said Attorney General Lawrence Wasden following the time of death announcement. "At about 8 o'clock this morning, the state district court judge in Ada County issued a denial of that stay and the matter was able to proceed." Rhoades was convicted of murder in 1987. He admitted to police he killed Susan Michelbacher, 34, and Nolan Haddon, 20.. He was also convicted in the murder of Stacy Baldwin, 21. He was sentenced in 1988.

Witness testimonials

The media representatives who witnessed the execution reported what they had seen in the execution chamber. Rebecca Boone is a reporter with the Associated Press. She described Rhoades' last words. "Perhaps the most noteworthy thing was Mr. Rhoades' final statement. He apologized for the Michelbacher murder but did not take responsibility for the other two murders," said Boone. "He said, to Bert Michelbacher, 'I'm sorry for the part I played in your wife's death. For Haddon, you still have to keep looking. I can't help you, I'm sorry for your family. I can't help you, I took part in the Michelbacher death, I can't help you guys, sorry.'"

Boone continued to describe his final statement, "He continued, he faced the section that contained his representatives, and he said 'Mom, goodbye,' and then he turned and faced the warden Randy Blades and said, 'You guys, I forgive you, I really do.' And that was the end of his statement for the evening."

KIVI's Mac King also witnessed the execution. He said the entire thing was done very professionally, "The whole thing was incredibly sterile, with the exception of his statement. Everyone was very professional. Double and triple checking every step of the process and sterile is the best adjective or word I can put with the entire thing." He also mentioned what the mood was like in the room when Rhoades made his statement and once the death was announced, "There were some tears on their part, they didn't really react when they did the statement but after he was pronounced dead there was definitely relief."

Nate Green with the Idaho Press Tribune was the third witness to address the media. He described what he thought was one of the most emotional parts of the execution. "It was very quiet and somber, quiet throughout. Towards the end, one gentlemen, apparent friend of Michelbachers, said, 'The devil has gone home.' That was very emotional."

The process

Following witness testimonies, Ada County Coroner Erwin Sonnenberg talked about the process. He was present for Rhoades' execution Friday, as well as the 1994 execution of Eugene Wells. "What I saw is what I would've expected," Sonnenberg described. "We're 27 years later, the first was done professional, as far as start to finish. Process was very much the same. What you expect to see different, is the changes in technology that have been implemented that were not available back then. It made it a lot better process because of technology, for my role in pronouncing the death, and seeing that everything went smoothly."

Sonnenberg continued describing the process, "We're monitoring the heart, you're seeing, as the different drugs are injected, you're seeing the heart respond accordingly to those drugs. Until you finally have the last drug administered, which would end up giving a flatline, and they run flatline for a few minutes to see if anything else was going on. Basically, we're just monitoring the heart, and how it's responding to the meds, and they responded just as we expected."

Finding closure

Following the execution, the mother of one of Rhoades' victims spoke with KTVB over the phone. Julie Haddon, mother of Nolan, said she feels relieved and is glad they are through having to hear about her son's murderer. "The only thing that bothered me was when he couldn't help the Baldwill family because he didn't do it," said Haddon. "I was stunned. I don't know why, why would I expect anything better out of him." Haddon also described what it was like being surrounded by the other victims' families. "It was quite comforting in a way, they were all very nice people. We got to visit with and express our feelings together. It was good."

Tom Moss was the lead prosecutor in Bingham County at the time of the murders. He said he was not surprised with how the execution went and he does not have much reaction to what happened. "I know what the evidence was, I feel very comfortable that he pleaded guilty to killing Nolan Haddon," said Moss. "There's no doubt in my mind that he killed Stacy Baldwin." Moss was asked if he believes in the death sentence. He said the facts in a case determine whether a prosecutor seeks the death penalty, and in this case it was warranted, "Nothing brings total justice. It doesn't bring their loved ones back."

He added that he has tried other death penalty cases, but this is the first one to bring a certain amount of closure, "This case is closed."

Triple killer Rhoades executed in Idaho

By Betsy Z. Russell - Sposkesman.com

November 18, 2011

BOISE - Triple murderer Paul Ezra Rhoades was executed this morning despite repeated last-minute appeals, in Idaho’s first execution since 1994 and only its second since 1957. “The execution of Paul Ezra Rhoades has been carried out in the manner that was prescribed by law in the state of Idaho,” state Corrections Director Brent Reinke said. “Death of the prisoner was pronounced at 9:15 a.m.”

In his final words, Rhoades took responsibility for one of the murders, but not the other two. A friend of the family of one of the victims, who was in the chamber witnessing the execution, said, “The devil has gone home.” Another family member commented, “What a coward.”

Unlike the last person executed in Idaho, double murderer Keith Eugene Wells, who dropped all appeals and asked to be put to death, Rhoades pursued every appeal possible, including a last-ditch appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court the night before his execution. None worked. Rhoades earlier admitted his crimes, which terrorized an eastern Idaho community for three weeks in 1987. His appeals have focused mostly on technicalities and on his abusive childhood and drug addiction. He said he had changed in his quarter-century in prison. He also challenged Idaho’s lethal-injection execution method as cruel.

Rhoades received the death sentence for the kidnappings and murders of 34-year-old Susan Michelbacher and 21-year-old Stacy Dawn Baldwin in 1987. He also was sentenced to life in prison without parole for the 1987 murder of 20-year-old Nolan Haddon, to which he pleaded guilty.

Associated Press reporter Rebecca Boone, who witnessed the execution, said Rhoades, after apologizing for the Michelbacher murder, said to the families of his other two victims, “I can’t help you guys, sorry.” She said a family member of one of the victims said, “He’s been lying the whole way through.”

Rhoades, lying on his back strapped to a gurney with IVs running to deliver the drugs that would kill him, said, “‘Mom, goodbye,’ then he turned and faced the warden, Randy Blades, and said, ‘You guys, I forgive you, I really do,’” Boone reported.

ABC Channel 6 reporter Mac King said, “The whole thing was incredibly sterile, with the exception of his statement. Everyone was really professional.” King said there were “some tears” from the victims’ families. King was among four reporters who witnessed the execution on behalf of the public.

About 45 people gathered in a circle in the freezing darkness outside Idaho’s state prison complex early in the morning to protest capital punishment, as the clock ticked toward the time for Rhoades to die by lethal injection. “This is a heartbreaking morning,” said Mia Crosthwaite of Idahoans Against the Death Penalty.

Reinke, asked about Rhoades’ demeanor prior to the execution proceedings, said, “He’s very serious. He understands what is about to happen. His spiritual adviser and his attorney have been with him throughout the night.” Addressing the media in the chill of the early morning, Reinke said, “The law requires and justice demands that Mr. Rhoades be held accountable. … Today we carry out the execution order.” All Idaho state prisons, statewide, were on lockdown and high alert during the execution proceedings, Reinke said.

Tom Moss, who prosecuted Rhoades in 1987 and later served as U.S. attorney for Idaho, said after the execution, “Nothing brings total justice. They don’t get their loved ones back. But it brings some satisfaction to them.” He said, “I’ve often said I don’t think I will live to see anybody executed. So there’s a certain amount of closure to see one of ‘em get executed. … There is satisfaction to see finally the law comes to its conclusion, it’s done. These families don’t have to read any more in the paper about there’s something going on with Paul Rhoades. … This case is closed.”

Paul Ezra Rhoades

ProDeathPenalty.com

Paul Ezra Rhoades had been loitering around convenience stores in the Blackfoot and Idaho Falls area, including the Red Mini Barn in Blackfoot. Stacy Baldwin worked at the Red Mini Barn and began her night shift around 9:45 p.m. on February 27, 1987. Some time before 11:00 p.m., Carrie Baier and two other girls rented videos at the Mini Barn from Stephanie Cooper, Baldwin’s co-worker. Cooper’s shift ended at 11:00 p.m, which left Baldwin alone.

When Baier returned around midnight, she noticed a man leave the store, get into a pickup truck (it turned out to be one used by the Rhoades family), and drive recklessly toward her. Baier saw a passenger next to the driver, but neither she nor her friends could identify the driver or the passenger. Baier went into the Mini Barn but could not find Baldwin, though Baldwin’s coat was still there and her car was outside. The last recorded transaction at the store was at 12:15 a.m. $249 was missing from the cash register. Rhoades and another male had coffee at Stan’s Bar and Restaurant, near the Mini Barn, sometime between 1:30 a.m. and 2:00 a.m. on February 28. Baldwin’s body was found later that morning near some garbage dumpsters on an isolated road leading to an archery range. She had been shot three times.

According to a pathologist, Baldwin died from a gunshot wound to the back and chest, but may have lived for an hour or so after the fatal shot was fired. On March 22 or 23, Rhoades’s mother reported her green Ford LTD had been stolen. Rhoades was seen driving a similar looking LTD on March 22, and on March 24, truckers saw the LTD parked on a highway median in Northern Nevada. They also saw a person matching Rhoades’s description lean out of the car, fumble with a dark brown item, and run off into the sagebrush. A Nevada trooper responding to the scene found a .38 caliber gun on the ground near the open door of the car, and a holster about forty-five feet away. Ballistics testing would show that this weapon had fired the bullets that killed Baldwin.

Rhoades turned up about 11:00 in the morning of March 25 at a ranch a mile and a half from where the LTD was found. Later that day, he got a ride from the ranch to Wells, Nevada, where he was dropped off at the 4 Way Casino around 9:00 p.m. Nevada law enforcement officers arrested Rhoades while he was playing blackjack. They handcuffed him, set him over the trunk of the police car, and read him his Miranda rights. Meanwhile, Idaho authorities were alerted to a Rhoades connection when the LTD was discovered. They had previously obtained a warrant for Rhoades’s arrest for burglary of Lavaunda’s Lingerie, and arrived at the 4 Way Casino shortly after Rhoades was arrested. As the Idaho officers — one of whom Rhoades knew from home — approached, Rhoades said: “I did it.”

Rhoades was advised of his Miranda rights by an officer from Idaho, Victor Rodriguez, and searched by another Idaho officer, Dennis Shaw. Rhoades had a digital wrist watch in his pocket, which he claimed to have found in a “barrow pit.” It was just like the one Baldwin was wearing the night she was killed. During the booking process at the Wells Highway Patrol Station, Shaw remarked something to the effect: “If I had arrested you earlier, Stacy Baldwin may be alive today.” Rhoades replied: “I did it.” Shaw then said, “The girl in Blackfoot,” and Rhoades again replied, “I did it.”

Forensic analysis would show that footprints found in the snow near Baldwin’s body were consistent with the size and pattern of Rhoades’s boots, and that Rhoades’s hair was consistent with a hair on Baldwin’s blouse. Rhoades also admitted to a cellmate that he kidnapped Baldwin, took her to an archery range intending to rape her but was unable to do so because she was hysterical, and shot her twice in the back. Based on this evidence, the jury found Rhoades guilty of murder in the first degree, kidnapping in the first degree, and robbery. The state court held an aggravation and mitigation hearing, after which it sentenced Rhoades to death on the conviction for first degree murder and the conviction for first degree kidnapping.

In 1987, Paul Ezra Rhoades was charged with the rape and murder of Susan Michelbacher as well as the murder and robbery of Nolan Haddon. Rhoades pleaded not guilty to all charges and filed a motion to sever the charges, which was subsequently granted. Rhoades was tried, convicted, and sentenced to death on the charges relating to the Michelbacher rape and murder. The parties subsequently entered into a plea agreement relating to the Haddon murder/robbery wherein Rhoades entered an “Alford” plea, maintaining his innocence in the case but conceding that “a conviction may be had on the charges as presently filed.” Rhoades was sentenced to serve concurrent indeterminate life sentences for the Haddon murder and robbery.

The evidence that would have been introduced at a trial for the Haddon murder included the gun used to kill Haddon found in the vicinity of a green car abandoned by Rhoades, statements made by Rhoades at the time of his arrest, and statements allegedly made to a jailhouse informer. Further evidence would have included witness testimony placing a car matching the description of the car in which Rhoades was found at the scene of the Haddon murder, law enforcement officers' testimony that items found in Rhoades' possession were similar to the items taken at the time of the Haddon robbery, and testimony regarding Rhoades' purchase of bullets matching the caliber of those used in Haddon?s murder. The gun is notable in the present case as the same gun was presented as the murder weapon in the case relating to the rape and murder of Susan Michelbacher.

Nolan Haddon worked the night shift at Buck’s convenience store in Idaho Falls, Idaho on March 16, 1987. The next morning, Buck’s owner found Haddon lying on the floor in a pool of blood. He had been shot five times. He was still alive at the time, but unconscious. He died at the hospital. An inventory of the store showed that some BIC lighters, Marlboro cigarettes, and $116 in cash were missing. The police suspected Rhoades of a string of burglaries, including one at Lavaunda’s Lingerie, and obtained a warrant to arrest Rhoades for that burglary on March 23, 1987. They learned that he was in Nevada when, on March 24, a Nevada state trooper responded to an accident involving a green Ford that was reported stolen by Rhoades’s mother, Pauline Rhoades. The next evening, two Nevada law enforcement officers arrested Rhoades inside a Wells Casino. They handcuffed him, placed him across the trunk of the police car, and advised him of his Miranda rights. Idaho officials were contacted and went to the Casino. As the Idaho team approached, Rhoades stated “I did it” without being questioned by anyone. Officer Victor Rodriguez, from Idaho, again advised Rhoades of his Miranda rights. Rhoades was asked if he understood those rights, and said something to the effect of “I do, yes.”

Detective Dennis Shaw, also from Idaho, searched Rhoades, and found two packages of Marlboro cigarettes and five BIC lighters similar to those taken from the store. Shaw also found a ten dollar bill, a one dollar bill, and a one-hundred dollar bill. He told Rhoades he had found three dollars, to which Rhoades responded: “It better be $111.” Rhoades was then taken to the Wells Highway Patrol substation for booking. At the station, Shaw remarked that he wished he had arrested Rhoades on an earlier occasion, and that he would probably have saved the last victim’s life. Rhoades raised his head and said, “I did it.”

Paul Ezra Rhoades

An Idaho native, born in 1957, Rhoades boasted a record of small-time arrests dating from age 21.

In May 1978, he was charged with refusal to disperse, and grand theft charges were filed against him six months later, the latter count dismissed prior to trial.

A new charge of refusal to disperse was lodged in March 1982, and June of that year saw him booked for petty theft. Rhoades was arrested for driving without a license in June 1985 and again in March 1986, but more serious charges of burglary were dismissed in January 1986. So far, he had been lucky, but police were only chipping at the apex of a lethal iceberg.

If the authorities are right in their suspicions, Rhoades began his hunt for human prey in the adjoining state of Utah, gunning down 16-year-old Christine Gallegos, in Salt Lake City, during May 1985.

Eleven months later, 20-year-old Carla Maxwell was shot to death in the robbery of a Layton, Utah, convenience store. Lisa Strong, age 25, was the third Utah victim, blasted on a Salt Lake City street in May 1986.

On February 27, 1987, Stacy Baldwin, 21, was kidnapped from her job at a convenience store in Blackfoot, Idaho, shot dead and dumped outside the city limits. Officers saw no connection four days later, when a 19-year-old college co-ed was abducted, robbed, and raped in Rexburg, but the links would show, in time.

On March 16, 20-year-old Nolan Haddon was fatally wounded in the robbery of an Idaho Falls convenience store.

Three days later, Susan Michelbacher, a 34-year-old schoolteacher, vanished en route to her classes in Idaho Falls. She was discovered, shot to death outside of town, March 21. Paul Rhoades, meanwhile, had fled the city in his mother's car, the vehicle reported to police as stolen. He was picked up in Elko, Nevada, on March 25, after a traffic accident led to identification of the missing car. Ballistics tests matched a confiscated revolver to the three deaths in Idaho, and warrants were issued charging Rhoades with murder, kidnapping, robbery, rape, and "an infamous crime against nature."

The courts ruled out an insanity plea in November 1987, and Rhoades was held over for trial on the outstanding charges.

Michael Newton - An Encyclopedia of Modern Serial Killers - Hunting Humans

Idaho high court throws out appeal from death row inmate Paul Ezra Rhoades

By Rebecca Boone - Associated Press

October 19, 2009

BOISE, Idaho (AP) — The Idaho Supreme Court has thrown out an appeal from death row inmate Paul Ezra Rhoades, saying that a DNA report didn't cast doubt on the reliability of his conviction.

Rhoades was sentenced to death for two murders and life in prison for a third in three separate cases in 1988. The high court ruling focused only on the murder of Idaho Falls special education teacher Susan Michelbacher, who was kidnapped, raped and killed in 1987.

Rhoades said he was actually innocent of the crime because one of the three DNA samples taken from Michelbacher's body allegedly didn't belong to him. But the high court pointed out that the claim came too late under state appeal deadlines, and that Rhoades' own expert acknowledged that the DNA in the third sample may have actually belonged to the victim, not another attacker.

State v. Rhoades, 121 Idaho 63, 822 P.2d 960 (Idaho 1991). (Michelbacher Direct Appeal)

Defendant was convicted of capital murder and sentenced to death following jury trial by the Seventh Judicial District Court, Bonneville County, Larry M. Boyle, J. Defendant appealed. The Supreme Court, McDevitt, J., held that: (1) no judiciable controversy existed regarding constitutionality of statutory repeal of insanity defense; (2) prosecutor's reference to defendant's failure to testify was harmless error; (3) statute which required prompt postconviction proceedings did not violate defendant's procedural due process rights; (4) defendant's statements were admissible; (5) prosecutor's failure to produce two police reports did not affect outcome of trial; (6) jury instructions adequately informed jury of applicable laws; (7) setting deadline for production of defense expert report was not abuse of discretion; (8) erroneous admission of victim impact statements was harmless; (9) trial court properly considered alternatives to death penalty; (10) weapons enhancements were properly charged as separate counts; and (11) reasonable doubt jury instruction did not misstate to applicable law. Affirmed. Johnson, J., concurred specially, dissented, and filed opinion. Bistline, J., concurs in the result.

McDEVITT, Justice.

This case arises from the murder of Susan Michelbacher. Paul Ezra Rhoades has been convicted in three separate murder cases. For the murders of Susan Michelbacher and Stacy Baldwin, Rhoades was sentenced to death; for the murder of Nolan Haddon he received an indeterminate life sentence based on a conditional plea.

The issues presented in this appeal are: I. Whether the legislative abolition of the defense of mental condition in criminal cases violates the Idaho or United States Constitutions. II. Whether the trial court's failure to make a pretrial ruling on the constitutionality of the statutory abolition of the insanity defense was in error. III. Whether comments made by the prosecuting attorney to the jury during closing argument violated the appellant's right to be free from compelled self-incrimination. IV. Whether the trial court's limitation on juror inquiry into the effects of the prosecutor's comments constituted harmless error. V. Whether accelerated post conviction procedures in capital cases are unconstitutional. VI. Whether inculpatory statements made by Rhoades to the police should have been suppressed. VII. Whether the prosecution's failure to turn over exculpatory evidence constituted reversible error. VIII. Whether the jury instructions were proper. IX. Whether the court erred in compelling a defense expert to prepare a written report or submit to an interview by the prosecutor before testifying. X. Whether the court erroneously considered a victim impact statement. XI. Whether the death penalty was properly imposed. XII. Whether the jury was properly selected. XIII. Whether the trial court's approval of the method of charging weapon enhancements was erroneous under statutory and case law.

I.–II. LEGISLATIVE ABOLITION OF THE INSANITY DEFENSE AND PRETRIAL RULING ON AVAILABILITY OF INSANITY DEFENSE

In 1982 the Idaho Legislature abolished the insanity defense in criminal cases by repealing I.C. § 18–209 and enacting I.C. § 18–207(a), which provides that “[m]ental condition shall not be a defense to any charge of criminal conduct.”

In this case, prior to trial, defense counsel filed a “Request for Declaration that the Enactment of § 18–207, I.C., the Repeal of §§ 18–208, 18–209, I.C. and the Repeal of Rule 12(g), I.C.R. are Unconstitutional.” It was urged that the abolition of the defense deprives criminal defendants of due process rights under the state and federal constitutions. The state filed a motion to quash this request, because, “an insanity defense has not been raised by the defendant and until such time as that issue is raised in good faith by the defendant such a request is an academic exercise as there is no issue in controversy.”

Both parties extensively briefed and argued the issue of justiciability; that is, whether there was any factual showing on the record that would grant the court the authority to render a ruling in the nature of a declaratory judgment on the issue. Rhoades had been examined by a psychiatrist pursuant to defense counsel's request. However, the defense did not introduce evidence indicating the psychiatrist's conclusions as to whether there was any basis on which to raise the issue of mental defect.

The defense contended that no showing was required under the unique circumstances of a capital case. The defense asserted that the court did have jurisdiction to render a declaratory judgment, in that the nature of a declaratory judgment is to clarify legal uncertainty, and having no legal definition of insanity made it impossible for a psychiatrist to render an opinion on whether Rhoades was legally insane.

The defense further argued that even if some showing was required, the prosecution and the court had waived the necessity of presenting preliminary evidence on Rhoades's mental condition when a defense request for psychiatric assistance at state expense was granted without the preliminary showing required by statute. The defense argues that this constituted a waiver of any showing that might be required in the later request for a ruling on the existence of the insanity defense. Finally, the defense urged that there was a sufficient factual showing on the record to bring Rhoades's sanity into issue. Noting that where the insanity defense is permitted it may be established by lay testimony, the defense cited the preliminary hearing testimony of one of the arresting officers to the effect that on the night Rhoades was arrested he was unstable and incoherent.

The trial court held a hearing on the defense request for a “declaration,” which consisted of the court inquiring of defense counsel if he was asserting the defense of insanity, if he had an offer of proof that the sanity of the defendant was in question, or an opinion from the psychiatrist that examined the defendant. Defense counsel replied to each inquiry that he could offer no proof until he had a legal standard by which to define insanity.

THE COURT: Do you have an insanity defense that you are raising, or is this an academic exercise we're going through? ... If you have a defense, and you have an expert who is going to testify that this is an issue in this case, then I want to know that. ATTORNEY: Your Honor, I'm sure the Court is thinking of Ake v. Oklahoma where the U.S. Supreme Court spoke on an indigent's right to have a psychiatrist appointed at public expense. The problem we have here, Your Honor, is there's little authority out of the Supreme Court in this area, that's one of the few cases that come even close to our situation. THE COURT: My question is, though, do you have, after having Mr. Rhoades examined by a psychiatrist of your choosing, an opinion that the insanity issue is present in this case? ATTORNEY: Your honor, may I have just a minute, I want to address the precise question the Court is posing to me. In light of Ake, we've been afforded the psychiatrist, ... and if you read the Ake decision, the Court explicitly states that the purpose of providing that psychiatrist at an early point is to allow the defense an opportunity to determine whether a defense is viable ... my point here today ... is that the psychiatrist does me no good unless we know what the law and legal standard is. THE COURT: You're evading my question. My question, and I want an answer to it, is direct, do you have an opinion from your expert that the sanity of this defendant is in question? ATTORNEY: Your Honor, I have no opinions from my expert at this time for the simple reason it was to be my next point, that until we know what the legal standard is for a possible sanity defense, defense of mental conditions excluding responsibility of the law, until we know what that is.... THE COURT: I'm going to go back, the question I'm concerned with is whether or not your expert who examined Mr. Rhoades months ago has rendered an opinion at any time indicating that there is a viable issue as to sanity or the ability of this man to understand what he did and to formulate an intent? I need an answer to that question, and we've danced around it, but we haven't had that directly presented to the Court. Has your expert given you any type of an opinion as to the mental condition of this defendant? ATTORNEY: Your Honor, again I'm not sure I understand the question.... The trial court issued a Memorandum Decision refusing to rule on defendant's motion to find I.C. § 18–207 unconstitutional, finding that in the absence of expert testimony or evidence, there was no legitimate issue before the court. Defendant moved to appeal this decision, and another hearing was held. Again, the court asked defense counsel for an offer of proof, and again, none was given. THE COURT: Let me ask you again as I did in August, do you have,—do you represent to this Court that you have expert testimony available to establish the viability of insanity defense in this case? ATTORNEY: Well, I'll answer it the way I answered it. First of all, I don't know whether I do or not because a psychiatrist, forensic psychiatrist without a legal standard defining what insanity is could not possibly give me an opinion. That's where that sits.

Defendant's motion to appeal was denied.

We perceive the difficulty of the defense in obtaining an expert opinion on such a complex issue without the guiding framework of a legal standard. We also recognize that a psychiatric opinion on the mental condition of a defendant in a criminal case is forged by a long process of interaction between the expert and the defense, and that the result of that process will not generally be available during the pretrial stage of a criminal case.

However, the trial court did not require that the defense present an expert opinion as to the ultimate issue of Rhoades's sanity. The court requested any expression of opinion by the expert as to whether insanity might be an issue in the case, or an assertion by counsel that he was raising the defense of insanity. The court did not require polished testimony concerning exact mental processes or precise cognitive abilities of the defendant. It would have sufficed for the expert to provide a summary affidavit stating that in his opinion, there was a viable issue of insanity involved in the case. Alternatively, the expert might have submitted an affidavit to the effect that it would be impossible for him to render an opinion without a guiding legal standard. Yet another option might be to offer an opinion based on the definition of insanity that Idaho had in place prior to the legislative repeal of the defense, restricting the affidavit to an in camera review in order to protect the defense from the consequences of prematurely offering an opinion from an improperly prepared defense expert.

The trial court found that the record did not create a justiciable controversy to support a ruling on the issue of the repeal of the insanity defense. We agree.

The authority to render a declaratory judgment is bestowed by statute. The Declaratory Judgment Act, contained in Idaho Code Title 10, chapter 12, confers jurisdiction upon the courts with the option to “declare rights, status, and other legal relations, whether or not further relief is or could be claimed.” I.C. § 10–1201. An important limitation upon this jurisdiction is that, “a declaratory judgment can only be rendered in a case where an actual or justiciable controversy exists.” Harris v. Cassia County, 106 Idaho 513, 516, 681 P.2d 988, 991 (1984). This concept precludes courts from deciding cases which are purely hypothetical or advisory in nature.

Declaratory judgments by their very nature ride a fine line between purely hypothetical or academic questions and actually justiciable cases. Many courts have noted that the test of justiciability is not susceptible of any mechanistic formulation, but must be grappled with according to the specific facts of each case. Id.; 22 Am.Jur.2d Declaratory Judgments § 33, at 697. This Court, in Harris, adopted the following language from the United States Supreme Court's definition of justiciability as a guiding standard in the context of declaratory judgment actions:

[A] controversy in this sense must be one that is appropriate for judicial determination. A justiciable controversy is thus distinguished from a difference or dispute of a hypothetical or abstract character; from one that is academic or moot. The controversy must be definite and concrete, touching the legal relations of parties having adverse legal interests. It must be a real and substantial controversy admitting of specific relief through a decree of a conclusive character, as distinguished from an opinion advising what the law would be upon a hypothetical state of facts. Where there is such a concrete case admitting of an immediate and definitive determination of the legal rights of the parties in an adversary proceeding upon the facts alleged, the judicial function may be appropriately exercised although the adjudication of the rights of the litigants may not require the award of process or the payment of damages. Aetna Life Ins. Co. v. Haworth, 300 U.S. 227, 241–42, 57 S.Ct. 461, 464, 81 L.Ed. 617 (1937) (citations omitted).

The same principle as pronounced by this Court provides: The Declaratory Judgment Act ... contemplates some specific adversary question or contention based on an existing state of facts, out of which the alleged “rights, status and other legal relations” arise, upon which the court may predicate a judgment “either affirmative or negative in form and effect.” * * * * * * The questioned “right” or status” may invoke either remedial or preventative relief; it may relate to a right that has either been breached or is only yet in dispute or a status undisturbed but threatened or endangered; but in either or any event, it must involve actual and existing facts. State v. State Board of Education, 56 Idaho 210, 217, 52 P.2d 141, 144 (1935).

In the present case, there are no actual and existing facts on the record. The record before the trial court, and before this Court, contains nothing more than the statement of counsel that he desired to inquire into the viability of the defense, and that although Rhoades had been examined by a psychiatrist, no opinion in any form as to Rhoades's mental state could be forthcoming unless the court provided an operative legal definition of insanity. As to the impossibility of offering an opinion without a legal standard to work with, the court had only the unsubstantiated statement of counsel to rely upon, there being no evidence from the expert. This unsworn statement does not provide a factual showing sufficient to create a justiciable issue before the court.

The testimony of Officer Rodriguez concerning Rhoades's manner on the night of his arrest likewise does not suffice to create a justiciable controversy on the issue of insanity. The officer stated during the preliminary hearing that on the night of the arrest: Paul Rhoades was either acting as if he was high on some kind of narcotic, or he was high on some kind of narcotics.... [H]e really didn't have much stability ... he had to be helped to walk. He swayed back and forth when he sat down, almost in a drunken stupor. Didn't say too much, and when he did, he mumbled, as if, I would take it, he was not in control of his senses, ...

Other testimony confirms Officer Rodriguez's impressions of Rhoades's conduct on the night of the arrest, but there is no evidence in the record as to abnormal conduct at any other time. This testimony establishes that Rhoades was having physical difficulty on the night of his arrest, which was assumed by the officers to be the result of drugs or intoxication. The trial court appropriately concluded that such evidence alone does not rise to the level of a showing of the mental condition of the defendant.

The defense argues that any showing that might be required was waived by the prosecution at the time of the hearing on the defense request for appointment of a psychiatric expert at state expense. The United States Supreme Court, in Ake v. Oklahoma, 470 U.S. 68, 105 S.Ct. 1087, 84 L.Ed.2d 53 (1985), held that the defendant is constitutionally entitled to psychiatric assistance at state expense once a preliminary showing has been made that the mental condition of the defendant is likely to be an issue in the case. At the hearing, the prosecution represented that it had no objection to the appointment of a psychiatric expert, and further stated that:

From the state's point of view from what we understand the evidence to be we would understand why they seek these two particular appointments, so we would urge the Court to go ahead and adopt that without requiring any further showing. Defense counsel urges that this statement by the prosecution, and the court's acquiescence in the motion for a court appointed expert without requiring any preliminary showing on the defendant's mental condition, amounts to a waiver of the required showing on the issue. We disagree.

Justiciability is a question of the jurisdiction of the court over the matter at issue. Baird v. State, 574 P.2d 713, 716 (Utah 1978); Mountain West Farm Bureau Mut. Ins. v. Hallmark Ins., 561 P.2d 706 (Wyo.1977). It is axiomatic that a lack of jurisdiction may not be cured by means of stipulation or waiver by the parties. Bowlden v. Bowlden, 118 Idaho 84, 794 P.2d 1140 (1990); White v. Marty, 97 Idaho 85, 540 P.2d 270 (1975), overruled on other grounds (1985). Therefore, this defense argument must be rejected.

We uphold the trial court's determination that the record does not create a justiciable controversy to support a ruling on the issue of the repeal of the insanity defense. Having done so, we do not reach the constitutional issue regarding the legislative repeal of the insanity defense.

III.–IV. COMMENT BY THE PROSECUTOR AND LIMITATION ON JUROR INQUIRY

In closing argument the prosecuting attorney made the following statements: PROSECUTING ATTORNEY: When I get paid, when you get paid is that how you describe it that you came into some money? That's the phrase you use when you inherit some money or come into some other windfall. In today's world when money changes hands legitimately there's generally a document that documents that transaction. A receipt, a check, a passbook saving's account that indicates the transfer of those funds. What did we hear from the defendant yesterday? DEFENSE ATTORNEY: Excuse me, Your Honor— PROSECUTING ATTORNEY: I'm sorry— DEFENSE ATTORNEY: I'm going to object. PROSECUTING ATTORNEY: I'm sorry, what did we hear from the defense counsel in the case-in-chief yesterday?

Defense counsel suggests that this constitutes reversible error because it referred to the defendant's failure to testify on his own behalf. We disagree.

The comment in question must be looked at in the context in which it was made. Boyde v. California, 494 U.S. 370, 110 S.Ct. 1190, 108 L.Ed.2d 316 (1990). Boyde v. California, involved a similar situation. The appellant asserted that comments made by the prosecutor immediately before the jury began sentencing deliberations unfairly influenced the jury. The Court stated: “This is not to say that prosecutorial misrepresentations may never have a decisive effect on the jury, but only that they are not to be judged as having the same force as an instruction from the court. And the arguments of counsel, like the instructions of the court, must be judged in the context in which they are made.” (citations omitted). Id. 110 S.Ct. at 1200.

In the present case, the prosecuting attorney made several references to the defense counsel's failure to explain the State's evidence. Each of these statements referred to the evidence presented by the defense, not about the defendant's failure to testify. So it was with the comment in question.

The trial court, in an Order Denying Motion for New Trial, found that: The prosecutor's comment, when viewed by itself, may appear to be improper on the surface, however, when viewed in the entire context and perspective of the trial, and the context of the comment, the Court is firmly of the belief beyond a reasonable doubt that any error was harmless.

This finding was based on several facts. The prosecutor immediately corrected himself after making the statement, during voir dire each juror was told that the defendant did not have to testify and that the burden of proving the defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt was on the State, and the jury was given an instruction that they could not draw any inference of guilt from the defendant's failure to testify, nor could that fact enter into their deliberations in any way. In addition, the trial court offered to reinstruct the jury on the issue of the defendant's failure to testify, but that offer was rejected by defense counsel.

We agree that, taken in context, the statement made by the prosecutor did not pertain to the defendant's failure to testify, but instead was a comment on the sufficiency of the defendant's evidence. It is entirely permissible for the prosecutor to comment on inconsistencies in the evidence presented by the defendant, United States v. Scott, 660 F.2d 1145, cert. denied, 455 U.S. 907, 102 S.Ct. 1252, 71 L.Ed.2d 445 (1982), and to draw inferences from those inconsistencies. United States v. Ellis, 595 F.2d 154, cert. denied, 444 U.S. 838, 100 S.Ct. 75, 62 L.Ed.2d 49 (3rd Cir.1979).

The defense further argues that the trial court impermissibly limited the scope of inquiry into whether the jury was influenced by the prosecutor's comment. The trial court permitted post-trial interviews of the jurors and authorized the defense to hire an investigator for that purpose. Of the fourteen jurors who heard the case, five jurors agreed to be interviewed, two refused, and seven were not contacted before the hearing. The defense requested a postponement of the hearing in order to have time to contact them, but this request was denied. The court also denied defense counsel's request to call some of the jurors as witnesses at the post conviction proceedings, or to take their depositions.

The investigator was appointed in early October. The hearing took place on January 11, 1989. The trial court found that this was ample time in which to contact the members of the jury and ask them questions. A decision to grant or deny a motion for continuance is vested in the sound discretion of the trial court. State v. Richardson, 95 Idaho 446, 511 P.2d 263 (1973), cert. denied, 414 U.S. 1163, 94 S.Ct. 928, 39 L.Ed.2d 117 (1974). Here, the defendant has not shown that the trial court abused its discretion by denying additional time to contact the other members of the jury. We hold that the trial court did not abuse its discretion in denying defendant's motion for continuance.

V. ACCELERATED POST CONVICTION PROCEEDINGS

Idaho Code § 19–2719 requires that in capital cases, post conviction relief must be requested within 42 days after the judgment is filed, and completed within 90 days after that. Appellant urges this Court to reconsider our decision in State v. Beam, 115 Idaho 208, 766 P.2d 678 (1988), which held that I.C. § 19–2719 did not violate the defendant's constitutional rights under equal protection analysis. We decline to do so.

Rhoades also claims that I.C. § 19–2719 violates his due process rights, which Beam did not address. Procedural due process issues are raised whenever a person risks being deprived of life, liberty, or property interests because of a governmental action. The requirement is that there must be some process to ensure that the individual is not arbitrarily deprived of his rights in violation of the state or federal constitutions. This requirement is met when the defendant is provided with notice and an opportunity to be heard. Mullane v. Central Hanover Bank & Trust Co., 339 U.S. 306, 313, 70 S.Ct. 652, 656, 94 L.Ed. 865 (1950); Armstrong v. Manzo, 380 U.S. 545, 550, 85 S.Ct. 1187, 1190, 14 L.Ed.2d 62 (1965). The United States Supreme Court provides us with a balancing test to determine if procedural safeguards are adequate in Mathews v. Eldridge, 424 U.S. 319, 335, 96 S.Ct. 893, 903, 47 L.Ed.2d 18 (1976). The three factors to be weighed are: the private interests at stake; the government's interest; and the risk that the procedures used will lead to erroneous results. U.S.C.A. Const.Amends. 5, 14. This Court has employed this due process test in State v. Ankney, 109 Idaho 1, 704 P.2d 333 (1985).

Here, the defendant's interest is in being afforded an adequate opportunity to present legal and factual issues in his defense. The government's interest in enacting I.C. § 19–2719, as stated by the legislature, is “to accomplish the purpose of eliminating unnecessary delay in carrying out a valid death sentence.” This was determined by this Court to be a legitimate goal in State v. Beam, 115 Idaho 208, 212, 766 P.2d 678, 682 (1988). The focus of our present inquiry is to determine whether or not I.C. § 19–2719 provides an adequate process to ensure that death sentences are not carried out so as to arbitrarily deprive a defendant of his life.

The statute requires the defendant to “file any legal or factual challenge to the sentence or conviction that is known or reasonably should be known” within 42 days of the filing of the judgment. These challenges arise out of the judicial proceeding just concluded. At this point, counsel has been closely involved with the case for some time, has been present at trial, and has had notice of all issues that are appropriate to be raised within this 42 day limit. All that counsel is required to do is to organize all challenges and issues that arose during trial and are appropriate for appeal within 42 days. That is not an unduly burdensome task. The statute provides adequate notice to the defendant of exactly what is required of him, and sufficient opportunity for all challenges to be heard. In addition, it serves the purpose of the legislature by preventing the unnecessary delays that occur with so much frequency in capital cases. It is important to note that this limit does not preclude challenges that may arise later, for example, evidence discovered subsequent to completion of the trial. There is no absolute bar on successive petitions for relief. Palmer v. Dermitt, 102 Idaho 591, 635 P.2d 955 (1981).

The legislature has seen fit to appropriately limit the time frame within which to bring challenges which are known or which reasonably should be known. The process encompassed in I.C. § 19–2719 providing for review by the trial court and then by this Court, provides adequate opportunity to present the issues raised and to have them adequately reviewed. Idaho Code § 19–2719 is not unconstitutional under due process analysis.

VI. SUPPRESSION OF INCULPATORY STATEMENTS

Rhoades was arrested on March 25, 1987. He was being sought as a suspect in an Idaho murder investigation, and when his car was identified in Nevada, a Nevada Highway Patrol Officer, George McIntosh, drove to the scene with two officers from Idaho, Victor Rodriguez and Dennis Shaw. Two Nevada officers, Trooper Neville and Officer Miller, were holding Rhoades at the scene. Another Nevada officer, Shires, arrived at the scene as back up. Shaw testified that as he and Rodriguez approached Rhoades where he was being held against the car by Neville and Miller, Rhoades made a spontaneous statement of “I did it,” without being directly addressed or questioned by any officer. Miller claims to have heard that first statement, although it was not included in his initial report of the arrest. Miller did include that fact in a supplemental report filed two months later. Officer McIntosh testified that he did not hear the statement, nor was it overheard by Trooper Neville.

After being read his rights, Rhoades was transported to the Highway Patrol Substation in Wells, Nevada. He did not make any statements en route. Officers Shires, Miller, Neville, McIntosh, Shaw, and Rodriguez were present at the station. Shaw made a statement to the defendant to the effect that if he had been apprehended earlier, the victims of his crimes might still be alive. Rodriguez testified that in response to that statement, Rhoades stated, “I did it.” This second statement at the station was not part of Miller's initial report, although he claims to have overheard it. Both Shires and Miller reported the statement in supplemental reports filed several months after the arrest. The statement was also not recorded by Officer Shaw in his report. Rhoades made no further statements.

Rhoades argues on this appeal that the trial court should have excluded those statements for three reasons: (1) the questionable reliability of the evidence, given the fact that several of the officers who claimed to overhear the statements failed to record the fact in their reports until months after the arrest; (2) the failure of the police to tape record the statements; and (3) the statements were the result of the violation of Rhoades's Miranda rights.

On the first point, the defense argues that due process under the state and federal constitutions requires an enhanced degree of reliability during the guilt determination stage of a capital prosecution. We reject this argument.

The United States Supreme Court has imposed many procedural protections for capital cases. See, e.g., Lockett v. Ohio, 438 U.S. 586, 98 S.Ct. 2954, 57 L.Ed.2d 973 (1978). However, these cases do not go so far as to alter the types of evidence or establish a minimum degree of reliability of evidence that may be admissible during the fact finding phase of a potential capital case. The prosecution in such cases is not required to prove the crime by any higher standard than the “beyond a reasonable doubt” standard used in other criminal cases. Admission of evidence is not governed by any separate rules applicable only to capital cases. Therefore, there is no reason to conclude that testimony which is questionable must be excluded during the guilt determination phase of a capital case. The credibility of evidence in a first degree murder case, as in all others, is an issue for the trier of fact.

Likewise, we cannot accept the contention that in order to be admissible, statements made in custody must be tape recorded by the police. The defense cites an Alaska case, Stephan v. State, 711 P.2d 1156 (Alaska 1985), holding that custodial confessions must be tape recorded in order to be admissible under the Due Process Clause of the Alaska State Constitution. That case represents no more than the prerogative of each state to extend the protections of its own constitution beyond the parameters of federal constitutional guarantees. We decline to adopt Alaska's standard in Idaho.

We now turn to the issue of whether Rhoades's Miranda rights were violated by the police during his arrest and custody.

There is some conflict in the record as to whether Rhoades was read his Miranda rights while in the custody of Nevada Officers Miller and Neville, or if he was given the Miranda warnings for the first time by Officer Rodriguez after Rodriguez, Shaw, and McIntosh arrived at the scene. Although the record does not support the trial court's finding that the first statement by Rhoades was preceded by a Miranda warning, that factual issue does not affect our conclusion that both statements were properly admitted into evidence.

The first “I did it” statement, while Rhoades was handcuffed in the parking lot was apparently spontaneous. So spontaneous in fact, that according to uncontested police accounts, Rhoades made the statement without being questioned or otherwise addressed by any of the officers present. As a spontaneous statement, it was admissible whether it occurred before or after Rhoades was read his Miranda rights. “Any statement given freely and voluntarily without any compelling influences is, of course, admissible in evidence.... Volunteered statements of any kind are not barred by the Fifth Amendment.” Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436, 478, 86 S.Ct. 1602, 1630, 16 L.Ed.2d 694 (1966). Although the statement entirely lacked any context to make it meaningful, the trial court correctly concluded that it was for the jury to decide to what Rhoades referred when he said “I did it” at the scene of the arrest.

The second statement at the station house, made in response to Shaw's comment, is also admissible. The trial court found that there was insufficient evidence in the record to support the inference that Rhoades had asserted his right to remain silent at any time during the arrest and booking. Officer McIntosh did testify that after Rodriguez finished reading the Miranda rights, Rhoades nodded as if to indicate that he understood. Then McIntosh testified that Rodriguez said something else, which McIntosh could not hear, whereupon Rhoades shook his head. McIntosh took the gesture to mean that Rhoades was asserting his right to remain silent.

Those facts are the sole basis in the record for the contention that Rhoades did assert his right to remain silent. There is no evidence in the record as to what Rhoades was responding to when he shook his head negatively. On the strength of this evidence alone, the trial court declined to infer that the shake of the head indicated a desire to remain silent. That finding is not clearly erroneous, given the lack of evidence to the contrary. Miranda teaches that “[o]nce warnings have been given, the subsequent procedures are clear. If the individual indicates in any manner, at any time, prior to or during questioning, that he wishes to remain silent, the interrogation must cease.” Miranda, 384 U.S. at 473–74, 86 S.Ct. at 1627.

In this case, based on the record before us, Rhoades did not assert his right to remain silent. If he had, Shaw's comment, properly found by the trial court to be “the functional equivalent of interrogation,” would have been improper and the second statement would not have been admissible. The requirement that interrogation must cease comes into play when the accused indicates in any manner that he or she does not desire to converse with the police, or that the presence of an attorney is desired. After rights are read to and acknowledged by the detainee, and until the right to silence or counsel is asserted, the police may initiate questioning.

The record indicates that Rhoades was read his rights before the second statement and acknowledged that he understood them. Although there is evidence that Rhoades was heavily influenced by narcotics at the time of the arrest, Officer Shaw testified that while searching his person, he engaged Rhoades in conversation to test his alertness and found that he had sufficient capacity to understand what was going on around him. In sum, Rhoades had been instructed upon and understood his rights at the time of arrest, and there is insufficient evidence to indicate that he asserted his right to remain silent. For the foregoing reasons we conclude that the second statement made in response to Shaw's “interrogation” is not subject to suppression under Miranda v. Arizona.

VII. WITHHOLDING OF EXCULPATORY EVIDENCE BY PROSECUTION

On May 15, 1987, the defense filed a request for discovery, asking for “[a]ll Bingham County and/or Blackfoot City Police reports or investigative materials relative to the Stacy Baldwin homicide which is alleged to have occurred in Bingham County.” On July 2, 1987, the prosecution filed a Supplemental Response to Defendant's Discovery Request, listing the items that it had provided pursuant to the discovery request, including, “[a]ll Bingham County and/or Blackfoot City Police reports” relative to the Baldwin case.

Part of the materials submitted to the defense in this exchange was a supplementary police report by Detective Newbold of the Blackfoot Police Department, which detailed the confession of Kevin Buckholz to the killing of Stacy Baldwin. Buckholz had been arrested by Blackfoot Police Officer Love on March 14, 1987, for drunk and disorderly conduct. Love's brief report indicated that Buckholz stated he had “killed the girl at the mini barn.” Later, while he was in the holding tank, Buckholz initiated conversation with Officer Larry Christian. Christian filled out the following report of the conversation: [A] prisoner in the holding tank started talking to me (Kevin Buckholt) [sic] said he “had problems and needed to be put away cause he couldn't function in the regular world,” he then proceeded to tell me he shot a girl twice in the back. I said what girl and he said “You know the one from the mini barn.” I then asked how many shots did you fire, he said “I don't know I shot several times, I hit her in the back twice.” ... I then asked him what kind of gun he used and he said “a ‘38’ then said no a ‘9’ mm I think.” ...

Christian reported the incident to Detective Newbold, who summarized the statement in his own report. That report was provided to defense counsel for Rhoades pursuant to the discovery request for Blackfoot City Police reports. Newbold's report mentions Christian's written report, and outlines that report in detail. However, neither Christian's nor Love's report was provided to the defense. On appeal, Rhoades argues that the prosecution's compliance with the discovery request was inadequate, and in violation of the prosecutor's duty to turn over all exculpatory evidence to the defense. Although this appeal concerns the conviction for the murder of Susan Michelbacher, Buckholz's confession is significant because the killings of Michelbacher and Baldwin were linked by ballistic evidence establishing that the same murder weapon was used in the commission of both crimes.

The test by which to measure the prosecutor's duty to disclose evidence is the materiality of the information at issue. The determination of “materiality” is guided by whether the information tends to create a reasonable doubt about guilt, State v. Brown, 98 Idaho 209, 560 P.2d 880 (1977), or is otherwise “obviously of such substantial value to the defense that elementary fairness requires it to be disclosed even without a specific request.” United States v. Agurs, 427 U.S. 97, 110, 96 S.Ct. 2392, 2401, 49 L.Ed.2d 342 (1975).

We do not believe that the outcome of the trial would have been different had the defense received the two other police reports. Officer Newbold's report provided enough detail to stimulate additional inquiry if the defense had been inclined to do so. The defense had the information that there was a confession to the Baldwin murder, the identity of the confessor, the details of the confession, and the name of the officer who heard the confession. With that information they could have contacted Officer Christian and Kevin Buckholz and determined from them whether the confession was worth pursuing. The defense claims that had they received the two additional reports from the prosecution then they would have made more of an effort to locate Buckholz. We believe that the defense could have made that determination without the other two police reports.

VIII. JURY INSTRUCTIONS

Appellant claims that the trial court erred in its instructions to the jury in a number of respects. Specifically: 1. The court should have instructed on the difference between general intent crimes and specific intent crimes. 2. The court should have instructed on mens rea and the concurrence of act and intent. 3. The court wrongly refused instructions and inadequately defined legal terms.

Appellant asserts that the refusal to instruct on specific intent when a defendant is charged with both specific intent and general intent crimes constitutes error because it could mislead the jury. Appellant cites several California cases for this proposition; however, it was not held in any of these cases to be reversible or prejudicial error. This Court held, in State v. Lankford, 113 Idaho 688, 694, 747 P.2d 710, 716 (1987): Where the jury instructions, taken as a whole, correctly state the law and are not inconsistent, but may be reasonably and fairly harmonized, it will be assumed that the jury gave due consideration to the whole charge and was not misled by any isolated portion thereof.

We hold that the court's instructions to the jury were adequate. Idaho Code § 19–2132 provides, “In charging the jury, the court must state to them all matters of law necessary for their information.” Here, the trial court found that the specific intent instructions requested by the defendant were adequately covered by the instructions given by the court, taken as a whole. In addition, the trial court found that the jury was carefully instructed on intent, and “to have given the requested instructions dealing with diminished capacity, unsoundness of mind, and other similar language as set forth in defense requested Instructions 64, 67, 68, 69, and 70 would have confused the jury because there was absolutely no evidence whatsoever presented relating to defendant's mental condition that would warrant giving [these instructions].” In State v. Fisk, 92 Idaho 675, 681, 448 P.2d 768, 774 (1968), this Court held that it was not error to refuse to give requested instructions if they were covered by other instructions given.

We conclude that the instructions given adequately informed the jury of the law applicable to the issues in question.

IX. COMPELLING DEFENSE EXPERT TO PREPARE A WRITTEN REPORT OR TO BE INTERVIEWED BEFORE TESTIFYING

The defendant hired a ballistics and hair expert to examine the State's evidence. The expert did not prepare or provide any written reports to the defense. The prosecutor sought an order from the court requiring the defense to “provide the state with copies of reports of examinations conducted by the defense experts ... whom the defendant intends to call at trial,” or in the alternative to allow the prosecutor to “interview the defense experts; if reports are not, or have not yet been prepared....” The defense objected to this procedure. The trial court ruled that the expert must either provide a written report to the prosecutor or allow the prosecutor to interview him pursuant to Rule 16(c)(2) of the Idaho Criminal Rules, which provides:

Upon written request of the prosecuting attorney, the defendant shall permit the state to inspect and copy or photograph any results or reports of physical or mental examinations and of scientific tests or experiments made in connection with the particular case, or copies thereof, within the possession or control of the defendant, which the defendant intends to introduce in evidence at the trial, or which were prepared by a witness whom the defendant intends to call at the trial when the results or reports relate to testimony of the witness. Idaho Criminal Rule 16(c)(2) clearly allows access to reports which the defendant intends to introduce at trial or which were prepared by a witness whom the defendant intends to call at trial. However, in ordering a defense expert to prepare a report for opposing counsel, or to submit to an interview by opposing counsel, the court overstepped the boundaries of the rule. The Washington Supreme Court interpreted an analogous criminal discovery rule, in State v. Hutchinson, 111 Wash.2d 872, 766 P.2d 447 (1989), which involved a similar situation. They held that:

It is undisputed that the defendant may be required to disclose any existing expert's report he intends to use at trial. However, the rule does not say that an expert can be required to make a report at the request of the opposing party. Defense counsel claims that no written reports have been requested, received or written. The clear language of the rule does not authorize the trial court to require the defendant's experts to prepare written reports for the state when they have not been prepared for the defendant.

However, we do not believe that this error resulted in prejudice to the defendant. This case differs from Hutchinson, because here, the defense did anticipate having the expert prepare a report, but told the prosecutor that it would not be available until a week before trial. The prosecutor was concerned that this would not be enough time in which to use the evidence to prepare for trial. In managing the trial procedure, the court set a deadline for the production of the expert report, which was within his authority.

X. VICTIM IMPACT STATEMENTS

We now turn to the issue of the victim impact statement contained in the presentence report. Booth v. Maryland, 482 U.S. 496, 107 S.Ct. 2529, 96 L.Ed.2d 440 (1987), prohibits the introduction of victim impact statements during the sentencing phase of a capital case as violative of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In Booth, there were two types of information presented in the victim impact statement. The first type consists of “a description of the emotional trauma suffered by the family and the personal characteristics of the victims,” and the second contains the “family members' opinions and characterizations of the crimes.” This information is excluded because, “its admission creates a constitutionally unacceptable risk that the jury may impose the death penalty in an arbitrary and capricious manner.” Id. 107 S.Ct. at 2533, 2535.

In the present case, the victim impact statement, in its entirety, states: The victim in this instant offense, Susan Michelbacher, was a 31 year old wife and mother. She was employed as a Special Education teacher at Eagle Rock Junior High in Idaho Falls. She resided with her husband, Bert, and their 2 1/2 year old son, Christopher Jon, in Idaho Falls. She had been a teacher for about 11 years, she was a member of the Christian Science Church, she was active in sports and community affairs, and a memorial has been established in her name. Her husband, Bert Michelbacher, has suffered emotional trauma at the loss of his wife and her companionship. He explained that for several months he was unable to perform his duties as project engineer at his place of employment at the level of efficiency he is accustomed to. The crime has also had a profound affect [sic] on his financial situation. He has had to hire a full-time nanny to care for his son, he has required some costly psychiatric counseling which was only partially covered by his health insurance plan, and he related that he had to purchase a replacement vehicle for the Ford van, which he cannot bear to look at much less drive. He explained that he wanted to sell the van, but due to it's relationship to the crimes, no one wants to buy it.

Mr. Michelbacher expressed a dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system and it's [sic] tendency to protect the criminal. He seemed to be harboring a significant amount of anger in addition to his grief and sorrow. He stated that he wanted to see justice done. He indicated that by the time justice is done, if justice is done, no one will remember who Susan Michelbacher was or what Paul Rhoades did to her. This is undoubtedly a victim impact statement of the kind contemplated in Booth v. Maryland, and as such, it was error for the trial court to admit it.

The next level of inquiry is to determine if the victim impact statement constitutes harmless error under the State v. Paz, 118 Idaho 542, 798 P.2d 1 (1990), exception. This Court, in Paz, relied on Chapman v. California, 386 U.S. 18, 87 S.Ct. 824, 17 L.Ed.2d 705 (1967), and Satterwhite v. Texas, 486 U.S. 249, 108 S.Ct. 1792, 100 L.Ed.2d 284 (1988), in holding that victim impact statements included in the presentence report, while error, could, under appropriate circumstances, be harmless error. The test to apply to determine if the use of such statements was harmless is whether this Court is assured that “it was harmless beyond a reasonable doubt.” Chapman v. California, 386 U.S. 18, 24, 87 S.Ct. 824, 828, 17 L.Ed.2d 705 (1967).

The only evidence in the record that the district court may have considered the information in the matter of a victim impact statement is one sentence in the Findings of The Court in Considering the Death Penalty: “[a]s a result, a husband is left without a wife, a child without a mother, and a community without the valuable contribution of a conscientious school teacher.” This is a statement of facts recited by the trial court as a result of having heard the evidence at trial. There is no indication that any evidence of the kind proscribed by Booth diverted the trial court from its primary function of considering the defendant being sentenced and not the victim or the victim's family.

In reviewing the record in this case, we are convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that the victim impact statement in the presentence investigation report did not influence the trial court in its imposition of sentence. The error was therefore harmless, and the case need not be remanded for sentencing.

XI. WHETHER THE DEATH PENALTY WAS PROPERLY IMPOSED

Appellant asserts that the trial court failed to adequately consider alternatives to the death penalty. In State v. Leavitt, 116 Idaho 285, 775 P.2d 599 (1989), this Court reversed the imposition of the death penalty and remanded, because: [T]he trial court failed to give adequate consideration of the alternatives which exist between the distant poles of ‘rehabilitation and possible probation,’ or the death penalty. Clearly, alternatives were and are available to a sentencing court, such as a fixed life sentence. Id. at 294, 775 P.2d 599.

The Court in Leavitt did not specify what constitutes “adequate consideration of the alternatives,” or exactly what the trial court would have to say in order to show that the alternatives were adequately considered. Here, in Findings of the Court in Considering the Death Penalty, the trial court titled a subsection “Sentencing Alternatives” and stated, “Conviction of these two crimes raises the possibility of the death penalty and other lesser sentences.” The court then goes on to say: [A]ny rehabilitation that is possible is markedly outweighed by the need to protect society, deter such crimes, and to punish and obtain retribution for the wrong committed.... the imposition of the death penalty in this case would not be unjust, and that the imposition of any other penalty would seriously depreciate the seriousness of the crime committed. We hold that this is sufficient to indicate that the trial court did consider alternatives to the death penalty and decided against imposing them after contemplating the unique circumstances of this case.

The defendant also asserts that mitigating factors were not adequately considered. The pertinent section of I.C. § 19–2515 provides: (c) Where a person is convicted of an offense which may be punishable by death, a sentence of death shall not be imposed unless the court finds at least one (1) statutory aggravating circumstance. Where the court finds a statutory aggravating circumstance the court shall sentence the defendant to death unless the court finds that mitigating circumstances which may be presented outweigh the gravity of any aggravating circumstance found and make imposition of death unjust. The clear language of the statute mandates that if an aggravating circumstance is present, “the court shall sentence the defendant to death unless the court finds that mitigating circumstances ... outweigh the gravity of any aggravating circumstances....”

Here, the trial court outlined the mitigating factors in detail, taking into consideration the defendant's education, social and economic status, vocational skills, drug and alcohol use, criminal record, personal redeeming characteristics, and the fact that he has been a cooperative prisoner since the time of his arrest. The court then went on to find three aggravating factors as listed in I.C. § 19–2515(g): (1) that the murder was “especially heinous, atrocious or cruel, manifesting exceptional depravity,” (2) that it was murder of the first degree committed with the specific intent to cause the death of a human being, and (3) that the defendant “has exhibited a propensity to commit murder which will probably constitute a continuing threat to society.” After weighing the mitigating factors against the aggravating circumstances, the trial court imposed the death penalty. All of this was well within the guidelines of the statute.

As for the defendant's claim that the trial court engaged in impermissible speculation and overemphasized aggravating factors, we find no merit in this argument. To be sure, the trial court did employ language that could be construed as passionate or emotional, but we will not presume to dictate the writing style which judges must use in their findings. The trial court carefully followed the provisions of I.C. § 19–2515 in imposing the death penalty. We find no abuse of discretion.

The final issue presented by the defendant concerning the imposition of the death penalty is that he was improperly sentenced by a judge without jury input. This Court has held “that there is no federal constitutional requirement of jury participation in the sentencing process and that the decision to have jury participation in the sentencing process, as contrasted with judicial discretion sentencing, is within the policy determination of the individual states.” State v. Creech, 105 Idaho 362, 373, 670 P.2d 463, 474 (1983), cert. denied, 465 U.S. 1051, 104 S.Ct. 1327, 79 L.Ed.2d 722 (1984). The United States Supreme Court held in Clemons v. Mississippi, 494 U.S. 738, 745, 110 S.Ct. 1441, 1446, 108 L.Ed.2d 725 (1990), that “[a]ny argument that the constitution requires that a jury impose the sentence of death or make the findings prerequisite to imposition of such a sentence has been soundly rejected by prior decisions of this Court.” In addition, in Walton v. Arizona, 497 U.S. 639, 110 S.Ct. 3047, 111 L.Ed.2d 511 (1990), the United States Supreme Court held that Arizona's statute which, like Idaho's, provides for sentencing by a judge in capital cases is not unconstitutional.

XII. WHETHER THE JURY WAS PROPERLY SELECTED

Defendant objected to the practice of transporting the jurors from Boise to Idaho Falls for the trial. He asserted that there were at least four jurors who were excused solely because it was inconvenient for them to have to travel to Idaho Falls, and that they would have been able to serve if the trial had been held in Boise. Defense counsel voiced this objection and listed the jurors who fell into this category. One juror had three small children and her husband was away from home, another was a sole proprietor and could not leave his business, the third had a husband who had just undergone surgery, and the fourth was planning a move out of state. The trial court addressed this argument as to each juror and concluded that, “all four of those would have been excused regardless of where we hold the jury trial.” We accept the trial court's decision and do not find there to be an abuse of discretion.

Appellant also assigns error to the exclusion of two potential jurors. One of them, Michael Krubsack, was passed for cause by both sides. The next day he requested an opportunity to speak to the court again, and said that he and his family were planning a move out of state and that having to go to Idaho Falls for the trial would pose an extreme hardship. The finding of the court was that Krubsack “had a state of mind and a personal situation which would have prevented his attention from being substantially devoted to this proceeding as contemplated in I.C. § 19–2019.” He was excused. The other, Michael Landry, was excused for various reasons. The court found that he would be a disruptive juror and would not act with impartiality. His father was in prison for murdering several members of his family, and this left Landry with some strong opinions in favor of the death penalty. Landry advocated public stoning, charging 50 cents per rock, and according to the court, “exhibited behavior, attitudes and, state of mind which was not conducive to serving as a juror considering the serious nature of the charges.” We find no abuse of discretion in these findings of the court.

XIII. FORM OF WEAPONS ENHANCEMENT CHARGES

Rhoades contends that the prosecution's decision to charge weapons enhancements as separate counts in the indictment was prejudicial, in that it would lead a jury to believe that Rhoades was charged with additional crimes. He argues that I.C. § 19–2520, which allows enhanced sentences for the use of a firearm or deadly weapon in the commission of certain felonies, does not create a separate substantive crime, and should not be permitted to be present in the information in a format which could lend the impression that it constitutes a separate crime. The statute specifically provides that a person convicted of certain enumerated felonies “who displayed, used, threatened, or attempted to use a firearm or other deadly weapon while committing the crime, shall be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment.” I.C. § 19–2520. In order to impose this additional term, the defendant must be “separately charged in the information or indictment and admitted by the accused or found to be true by the trier of fact....” The trial court followed the explicit language of the statute. This was not error.

XIV. CONCLUSION

After independently reviewing the record and transcript describing the character of the defendant, the nature of the crime of which he has been convicted, the circumstances of the crime of which he has been convicted, we hold that there existed an adequate basis for imposing the death penalty.

The judgment entered and sentence imposed are affirmed. BAKES, C.J., and McDERMOTT, J. Pro Tem., concur. BISTLINE, J., concurs in the result.

JOHNSON, Justice, concurring specially and dissenting:

In concur in part VIII (JURY INSTRUCTIONS) of the Court's opinion so far as it goes. I write only to point out that Rhoades challenged the propriety of the reasonable doubt instruction given by the trial court. The portion of this instruction that Rhoades asserted was the most objectionable stated: A reasonable doubt is an actual doubt based upon the evidence or lack of evidence. It is such doubt as you are conscious of after going over in your minds the entire case and giving consideration to all the testimony. If you then feel uncertain and not fully convinced that the defendant is guilty or if you feel that you would not be acting reasonably should you find him guilty, and if you believe that a reasonable man in any matter of like importance in his own affairs would hesitate to act because of such doubt as you are conscious of having, then that is a reasonable doubt, and the defendant is entitled to the benefit of it.

Rhoades has cited Cage v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 39, 111 S.Ct. 328, 112 L.Ed.2d 339 (1990), among the authorities upon which he relies in challenging this instruction. In Cage the Court found that the phrases “grave uncertainty,” “actual substantial doubt,” and “moral certainty” combined together in a reasonable doubt instruction caused the instruction to violate the Due Process Clause. The instruction in this case does not have these same defects. Although “actual doubt” and “conscious” are used in the instruction in this case, they do not, in my view, cause the same problem that the Court saw with the instruction in Cage.

I dissent from part X (VICTIM IMPACT STATEMENTS) of the Court's opinion. In applying the harmless error rule in death penalty cases where victim impact statement information was included in the record before the trial court, I would require a statement by the trial court that the information had not been considered.

ON REHEARING, McDEVITT, Justice.

This case arises from the murder of Susan Michelbacher. Paul Ezra Rhoades has been convicted in three separate murder cases. For the murders of Susan Michelbacher and Stacy Baldwin, Rhoades was sentenced to death; for the murder of Nolan Haddon, he received an indeterminate life sentence based on a conditional plea.

ARGUMENT ON REHEARING

Appellant filed a petition for rehearing on March 4, 1991. In it, he requested rehearing on nine issues. On April 8, 1991, we granted rehearing only as to the constitutionality of the reasonable doubt jury instruction.

INSTRUCTION NUMBER 23: THE REASONABLE DOUBT INSTRUCTION

This jury instruction was read to the jury as follows: A defendant in a criminal action is presumed to be innocent until the contrary is proved, and in a case of a reasonable doubt whether his guilt is satisfactorily shown, he is entitled to an acquittal. Thus a defendant, although accused, begins the trial with a clean slate with no evidence against him. And the law permits nothing but legal evidence presented before the jury to be considered in support of any charge against the accused. The effect of this presumption is to place upon the State the burden of proving him guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Reasonable doubt is defined as follows: It is not mere possible doubt, because everything relating to human affairs, and depending on moral evidence, is open to some possible or imaginary doubt. It is the state of the case which, after the entire comparison and consideration of all the evidence, leaves the minds of the jurors in that condition that they cannot say they feel an abiding conviction, to a moral certainty, of the truth of the charge. A reasonable doubt is an actual doubt based upon the evidence or lack of evidence. It is such doubt as you are conscious of after going over in your minds the entire case and giving consideration to all the testimony. If you then feel uncertain and not fully convinced that the defendant is guilty or if you feel that you would not be acting reasonably should you find him guilty, and if you believe that a reasonable man in any matter of like importance in his own affairs would hesitate to act because of such doubt as you are conscious of having, then that is a reasonable doubt, and the defendant is entitled to the benefit of it. But if, after considering all of the evidence, you have an abiding conviction of the truth of the charge, then you are convinced beyond a reasonable doubt, and you should render your verdict accordingly.

THE REASONABLE DOUBT JURY INSTRUCTION COMPLIES WITH DUE PROCESS

Appellant attacks the third paragraph of the reasonable doubt instruction. The thrust of appellant's argument is that the instruction, read as a whole, could be interpreted by a juror to suggest that a higher degree of doubt than a reasonable doubt is necessary in order to acquit. Specifically, he argues that the term “actual” suggests that some doubts do not count. He also argues that the term “conscious” suggests something more than “reasonable.” He argues that the word “feel” requires the jurors to turn to their inner feelings rather than to the evidence. Additionally, he argues that the phrase “fully convinced” suggests that it is not enough to be partially convinced of innocence. He argues that the reference to a “reasonable man” is inappropriate for a jury instruction in a criminal case. Finally, he argues that the phrase “hesitate to act” accentuates the word “feel.” Appellant concludes that paragraph three cannot be reconciled with the clear definition of “reasonable doubt” contained in paragraph two.

The analysis of the issue on rehearing must begin with the fundamental principle of criminal law: Lest there remain any doubt about the constitutional stature of the reasonable-doubt standard, we explicitly hold that the Due Process Clause protects the accused against conviction except upon proof beyond a reasonable doubt of every fact necessary to constitute the crime with which he is charged. In re Winship, 397 U.S. 358, 364, 90 S.Ct. 1068, 1073, 25 L.Ed.2d 368 (1970).

When the term “reasonable doubt” appears in a jury instruction, and when the jurors must understand it and apply it, “the term should be defined more precisely so that there is no question in the jurors' minds with respect to the concept.” State v. Holm, 93 Idaho 904, 908, 478 P.2d 284, 288 (1970). So, when a jury is instructed on the reasonable doubt standard, the instruction cannot raise the degree of doubt necessary for an acquittal.

Appellant points to the fact that the jury instruction given in the district court below was not identical to the California jury instruction that we announced our preference for in Holm, 93 Idaho at 907–08, 478 P.2d at 288, and again in State v. Cotton, 100 Idaho 573, 577, 602 P.2d 71, 75 (1979). Today, we again reaffirm the holding of Cotton that the only appropriate instruction on reasonable doubt is the California jury instruction.

In this case, appellant requested the district court to give a reasonable doubt jury instruction that was identical to the preferred California jury instruction. The court gave an instruction that included the language of the California instruction with an additional two paragraphs. While it was inappropriate for the district court to not give the California jury instruction, our review is limited to whether the instruction that was given to the jury misstated the law or was so confusing and argumentative as to mislead the jury. Cotton, 100 Idaho at 576, 602 P.2d at 74.

Appellant cites the recent United States Supreme Court decision of Cage v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 39, 111 S.Ct. 328, 112 L.Ed.2d 339 (1990), a per curiam opinion, for the proposition that it is never permissible for any combination of words to suggest a higher standard for acquittal than reasonable doubt. The Cage Court was faced with the issue of “whether the reasonable doubt instruction in this case complied with Winship.” Cage, 498 U.S. at ––––, 111 S.Ct. at 329 (emphasis added). The Court concluded that “the instruction at issue was contrary to the ‘beyond a reasonable doubt’ requirement articulated in Winship.” Cage, 498 U.S. at ––––, 111 S.Ct. at 329. We conclude that the Cage instruction is not similar to the instruction at issue in this case. Accord, Lord v. State, 107 Nev. 28, 806 P.2d 548, 554 (1991).

The instruction given to the jury in this case contained the California jury instruction. However, it expanded on that definition. The first two paragraphs of the instruction constitute the preferred California instruction. The third and fourth paragraphs do not impose a higher standard than “reasonable doubt.” We therefore hold that while it was inappropriate for the district court to not give the appellant's requested instruction, the instruction that was given did not misstate the law and was not so confusing and argumentative as to mislead the jury. Any embellishment or addition to the California reasonable doubt instruction risks misstating the law.

The judgment entered and sentence imposed are affirmed. Upon issuance of the remittitur, the district court shall set a new execution date. I.C. § 19–2719(11). BAKES, C.J., JOHNSON, J., and McDERMOTT, J., Pro Tem., concur.

BISTLINE, Justice, dissenting.

As the majority notes, “[t]oday we again reaffirm the holding in [State v.] Cotton, [100 Idaho 573, 577, 602 P.2d 71, 75 (1979) ] that the only appropriate instruction on reasonable doubt is the California jury instruction.” It should be remembered, however, that the adoption of the California reasonable doubt instruction in Cotton was not at all unanimous. Chief Justice Bakes, at that time an Associate Justice of the Court, specially concurred in Cotton, wrote what this one member of the Court viewed as being more of a dissent than was a concurrence:

I question, however, ... the Court's carte blanche approval of the California jury instruction.... That instruction has its own problems. As an example, the instruction states that everything relating to human affairs, and depending on ‘moral evidence,’ is open to some possible or imaginary doubt. I have always thought that the use of word ‘moral’ in that part of the instruction was a typographical error which had been blindly perpetuated throughout the years. I was surprised to find the phrase ‘moral evidence’ defined in Black's Law Dictionary (5th ed.), p. 909, as: ‘As opposed to “mathematical” or “demonstrative” evidence, this term denotes that kind of evidence which, without developing an absolute and necessary certainty, generates a high degree of probability or persuasive force. It is founded on analogy or induction, experience of the ordinary course of nature, and the testimony of men.’

We do not instruct the jury on the definition of ‘moral evidence’ and it is well we don't; otherwise the jury might conclude that a reasonable doubt can be raised by ‘moral evidence’ and not by other kinds, i.e., ‘mathematical’ or ‘demonstrative’ evidence. If we are going to adopt the California jury instruction in Idaho, we ought to excise the word ‘moral’ in front of the word ‘evidence.’

The instruction then goes on to advise the jury that there is a reasonable doubt if the evidence ‘leaves the mind of the jurors in that condition that they cannot say they feel an abiding conviction, to a “moral certainty, of the truth of the charge.” ’ There is certainly a question whether the jury is any better informed by equating a lack of reasonable doubt with ‘an abiding conviction, to a moral certainty, of the truth of the charge,’ as the California jury instruction provides, rather than by defining reasonable doubt as ‘the same kind of doubt interposed in the graver transactions of life [which] would cause a reasonable and prudent man to hesitate and pause,’ as the trial court instructed in this case.

It is problematic whether a jury would be helped any more by giving one than the other, and it may well be that the words themselves, ‘reasonable doubt,’ have a clearer meaning than the definition set out in either instruction. This no doubt accounts for those cases [cited by the majority], which state that either it is error for a trial judge to attempt to define reasonable doubt, or that it is not error to fail to define the term. As the Wyoming Supreme Court recently observed: ‘[T]he term “reasonable doubt” need not be defined and a trial court would be well-advised to avoid instructions on reasonable doubt. Therefore an instruction purporting to define reasonable doubt should not be given. ‘We again reviewed the matter of giving a reasonable doubt instruction in Bentley v. State, Wyo., 502 P.2d 203, 206. In that case we said the phrase “reasonable doubt” is self explanatory and definitions do not clarify its meaning but rather tend to confuse the jury.’ Cosco v. State, 521 P.2d 1345, 1346 (Wyo.1974). Cotton, 100 Idaho at 579–80, 602 P.2d at 77–78.

Another member of that Court, (Bistline, J., specially concurring) observed: On the one hand we have the Court holding that it was error for the trial court to refuse defendant's instruction on reasonable doubt, the Court having in the year 1970 given that instruction the stamp of approval. On the other hand we have one member of the Court casting doubt on that instruction. There is much to what Justice Bakes writes. ‘Beyond a reasonable doubt’ may be sufficient without further explanation and attempts at further refinements to the definition may cause confusion where perhaps none existed. .... It does seem that, the question having been raised by Justice Bakes, some further discussion by the Court might have been in order. Frankly, as with Justice Bakes, I do not see much in the California jury instruction to commend it. Sitting as the new member of a court which has allowed itself to become deeply involved in the making of rules, some of which I fear transcend into the substantive law, it seems that we could take time to delve more deeply into the validity of the instruction now brought in question.

Criticism of the California instruction means little, however, unless it is constructive. Accordingly, I offer up for semantic dissection the following suggested instruction on reasonable doubt: ‘The law gives a defendant in a criminal action a presumption of innocence which presumption remains with the defendant throughout the trial. The law places upon the State the burden of proving the defendant guilty. This is not the burden of proving that the defendant is more likely guilty than innocent, but requires that the evidence presented prove the defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. Doubt is a word of common usage and needs no further definition. A reasonable doubt is simply a doubt which you would entertain because it is reasonable. If, however, to you the doubt is not reasonable, then you will not entertain it, but cast it out.’ ‘Beyond is equally a word of common usage. Hence you are simply instructed that the evidence presented must convince you at least beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty. In reaching a verdict you should be mindful that “beyond a reasonable doubt” is the same quality of proof which you would want required were you a defendant charged with a crime.’ Cotton, 100 Idaho at 580, 602 P.2d at 78 (Bistline, J., concurring specially).

The words of Justice Bakes were well chosen then and are still applicable. The California instruction is confusing and, in all likelihood, unnecessary. Here, however, the majority starts from the erroneous assumption that the two paragraph California instruction so clearly informs the jury as to the law that the addition of two more perplexing paragraphs “was not so confusing and argumentative as to mislead the jury.” That is like saying four swift kicks to the head cause no more confusion than just two.

In fact, the instruction here furnished to the Rhoades jury is nothing more than a compilation of vague terms one piled upon another. Reasonable doubt, in one part of the instruction, is not “mere possible doubt” or an “imaginary doubt.” Rather it is “an abiding belief, to a moral certainty,” “an actual doubt,” “an actual doubt based upon the evidence or lack of evidence,” “such doubt as you are conscious of after going over in your minds the entire case,” and it is the “uncertain” and “not fully convinced” feeling, and the belief that would cause a reasonable man (but not woman) to hesitate to act. One worry is that ordinarily reasonable persons performing jury duty on seeing such an abundance of “doubt” may well turn into twelve doubting Thomases. Conversely, the ill-conceived attempt to define what constitutes reasonable doubt could cause the jury to actually lower the state's burden of proof. It is impossible to conclude that the above compilation of ambiguous terms served any purpose other than to confuse the jury.

Moreover, the “moral certainty” language of the instruction has been criticized on high for denigrating the requirement of “evidentiary certainty,” mandated by the due process clause of the fourteenth amendment. The United States Supreme Court wrote in Cage v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 39, 111 S.Ct. 328, 330, 112 L.Ed.2d 339 (1990): When those statements [requiring ‘substantial doubt’ and ‘grave uncertainty’] are then considered with the reference to ‘moral certainty’ rather than evidentiary certainty, it becomes clear that a reasonable juror could have interpreted the instruction to allow a finding of guilt based on a degree of proof below that was required by the Due Process Clause. In light of these considerations of the instruction as given, there is now one justice's certain vote that the better and proper course would be to reverse and remand for a new trial, where, hopefully, an improved instruction, if one is to be given, would be of some aid to the jury.

State v. Rhoades, 120 Idaho 795, 820 P.2d 665 (Idaho 1991). (Baldwin Direct Appeal)

Defendant was convicted of first-degree murder, first degree kidnapping, robbery, and use of firearms following jury trial in the District Court of the Seventh Judicial District, County of Bingham, James C. Herndon, J., and death sentence was imposed. Defendant appealed. The Supreme Court, McDevitt, J., held: (1) that record did not create justiciable controversy to support ruling on repeal of insanity defense; (2) no error was shown on theory of withholding exculpatory evidence by the prosecution; (3) defendant was not entitled to new trial after jailhouse informant testified at postconviction hearing that he would not have testified if he had known the sentence he was going to receive; (4) inculpatory statements were admissible; (5) statute setting time limits on postconviction proceedings in capital cases does not violate due process; (6) error in admitting victim impact statement was harmless; (7) statute did not require defense expert to prepare a report for opposing counsel or to submit to interview, but error in so ruling was harmless; and (8) death sentence was not excessive or disproportionate. Affirmed. Bistline, J., filed opinion concurring in the result and specially concurring in part. Johnson, J., filed opinion concurring and concurring specially.

McDEVITT, Justice.

This case arises from the murder of Stacy Baldwin. Paul Ezra Rhoades has been convicted in three separate murder cases. For the murders of Susan Michelbacher and Stacy Baldwin, Rhoades was sentenced to death, and for the murder of Nolan Haddon he received an indeterminate life sentence based on a conditional plea.

On February 28, 1987, Stacy Baldwin was abducted from the convenience store where she was working near Blackfoot, Idaho. She was then taken to a secluded location and shot several times. She died approximately an hour and a half later. The issues presented in this appeal are: I. Whether a prejudicial statement made by one juror to another should have been grounds for a mistrial. II. Whether the legislative abolition of the defense of mental condition in criminal cases violates the Idaho or United States Constitutions. III. Whether the trial court's failure to make a pretrial ruling on the constitutionality of the statutory abolition of the insanity defense was in error. IV. Whether the prosecution's failure to turn over exculpatory evidence constituted reversible error. V. Whether the trial court should have excluded testimony by a jailhouse informant. VI. Whether inculpatory statements made by Rhoades to the police should have been suppressed. VII. Whether accelerated post conviction procedures in capital cases are unconstitutional. VIII. Whether the court erroneously considered victim impact statements. IX. Whether the death penalty was properly imposed. X. Whether the court erred in compelling a defense expert to prepare a written report or submit to an interview by the prosecutor before testifying. XI. Whether the trial court abused its discretion in denying a motion for continuance to allow for the attendance of the defense's forensic expert. XII. Proportionality of the sentence imposed.

I. PREJUDICIAL STATEMENT BY JUROR

Rhoades asserts that the trial court should have granted a mistrial because of a prejudicial statement allegedly made by one juror to another. After the jury was selected, a deputy sheriff from Bingham County came forward and signed a statement stating that he overheard one juror make a prejudicial remark to another juror during the jury selection process. The deputy testified in a special proceeding outside the presence of the jury, that during a recess he was six to eight feet away from the jury box when he heard a juror say, “you can just look at him and tell that he's guilty.”

Upon learning of this, the trial court undertook an extensive inquiry into the matter. Counsel was permitted to examine the deputy sheriff at length. Several questions were raised concerning the accuracy of his perceptions. The supposed remark did not mention the defendant's name, and the deputy sheriff did not hear any conversation either before or after the statement to indicate the context in which it was made. The court then took testimony from juror Webster, who supposedly made the prejudicial statement, Hinrichs, the juror to whom the remark was addressed, and all other members of the jury. Webster denied having made the remark. Hinrichs denied having heard it. The juror sitting directly in front of Hinrichs did not hear it, nor did any other juror or officer in the vicinity. The court inquired if the jurors were still able to be fair and impartial in their deliberations. Hinrichs and Webster both reassured the court of their ability to be fair and impartial jurors and to judge the case solely on the evidence presented. Based on this testimony, the trial court denied defendant's motion for mistrial.

Appellant has failed to show that the court abused its discretion in denying the motion. The record does not support the contention that any remark was made that would prejudice the defendant. The trial court's finding is supported by the evidence, and accordingly, we hold that the defendant was not prejudiced by jury misconduct and was not entitled to a mistrial.

II.–III. LEGISLATIVE ABOLITION OF THE INSANITY DEFENSE AND PRETRIAL RULING ON THE AVAILABILITY OF THE INSANITY DEFENSE

In 1982 the Idaho legislature abolished the insanity defense in criminal cases, by repealing I.C. § 18–209 and enacting I.C. § 18–207(a), which provides that “[m]ental condition shall not be a defense to any charge of criminal conduct.”

In this case, prior to trial, defense counsel filed a “Request for Declaration that the Enactment of § 18–207, I.C., the Repeal of §§ 18–208, 18–209, I.C. and the Repeal of Rule 12(g), I.C.R. are Unconstitutional.” It was urged that the abolition of the defense deprives criminal defendants of due process rights under the state and federal constitutions. Both parties extensively argued the issue of justiciability; that is, whether there was any factual showing on the record that would grant the court the authority to render a ruling in the nature of a declaratory judgment on the issue. Rhoades had been examined by a psychiatrist pursuant to his counsel's request. However, the defense did not introduce evidence indicating the psychiatrist's conclusions as to whether Rhoades might be suffering from any mental defect. The defense contended that no showing was required under the unique circumstances of a capital case. The defense asserted that the court did have jurisdiction to render a declaratory judgment, in that the nature of a declaratory judgment is to clarify legal uncertainty, and having no legal definition of insanity made it impossible for a psychiatrist to render an opinion on whether Rhoades was legally insane. The defense further argued that even if some showing was required, the prosecution and the court had waived the necessity of presenting preliminary evidence on Rhoades's mental condition when a defense request for psychiatric assistance at state expense was granted without the preliminary showing required. The defense argues that this constituted a waiver of any showing that might be required in the later request for a ruling on the existence of the insanity defense.

Finally, the defense urged that there was a sufficient factual showing on the record to bring Rhoades's sanity into issue. Noting that where the insanity defense is permitted it may be established by lay testimony, the defense cited the preliminary hearing testimony of one of the arresting officers to the effect that on the night Rhoades was arrested he was unstable and incoherent.

The trial court held a hearing on the defense request for a “declaration” that the Idaho statutes were unconstitutional. During that hearing, the court inquired of counsel as to its assertion of any mental defect defense. THE COURT: Gentlemen, I've had the opportunity to read defendant's brief and also plaintiff's brief. I've also had the opportunity to review in detail Judge Boyle's memorandum decision he entered in a companion case in Idaho Falls, where the same issue was raised. I've looked at the Montana cases and also those cases you argue. It's my understanding, Mr. Parmenter, that your client does not at this time tender a defense of insanity? DEFENSE ATTORNEY: Well, that's correct, Your Honor. And that's primarily because of the status of the law. What we're saying is that if we had that law to elect from, we might elect. But as of this point in time, that's correct. THE COURT: Okay. If that is the correct situation, ... there is no insanity defense tendered. Then I must look at it as a matter that presents an issue that is not before the court because the defense has never been claimed. We're actually asked to get into the area of dicta, or perhaps speculation in this matter. There's nothing before the court to indicate an insanity defense has been raised, or the court should act upon it. The court denied the defendant's request for a “declaration.”

We perceive the difficulty of the defense in obtaining an expert opinion on such a complex issue without the guiding framework of a legal standard. We also recognize that a psychiatric opinion on the mental condition of a defendant in a criminal case is forged by a long process of interaction between the expert and the defense, and that the result of that process will not generally be available during the pretrial stage of a criminal case.

However, the trial court did not require that the defense present an expert opinion as to the ultimate issue of Rhoades's sanity. The court requested any expression of opinion by the expert as to whether insanity might be an issue in the case, or an assertion by counsel that he was raising the defense of insanity. The court did not require polished testimony concerning exact mental processes or precise cognitive abilities of the defendant. It would have sufficed for the expert to provide a summary affidavit stating that in his opinion, there was a viable issue of insanity involved in the case. Alternatively, the expert might have submitted an affidavit to the effect that it would be impossible for him to render an opinion without a guiding legal standard. Yet another option might be to offer an opinion based on the definition of insanity that Idaho had in place prior to the legislative repeal of the defense, restricting the affidavit to an in camera review in order to protect the defense from the consequences of prematurely offering an opinion from an improperly prepared defense expert.

The trial court found that the record did not create a justiciable controversy to support a ruling on the issue of the repeal of the insanity defense. We agree. The authority to render a declaratory judgment is bestowed by statute. The Declaratory Judgment Act, contained in Idaho Code tit. 10, ch. 12, confers jurisdiction upon the courts the option to “declare rights, status, and other legal relations, whether or not further relief is or could be claimed.” I.C. § 10–1201. An important limitation upon this jurisdiction is that, “a declaratory judgment can only be rendered in a case where an actual or justiciable controversy exists.” Harris v. Cassia County, 106 Idaho 513, 516, 681 P.2d 988, 991 (1984). This concept precludes courts from deciding cases which are purely hypothetical or advisory. Declaratory judgments by their very nature ride a fine line between purely hypothetical or academic questions and actually justiciable cases. Many courts have noted that the test of justiciability is not susceptible of any mechanistic formulation, but must be grappled with according to the specific facts of each case. Harris v. Cassia County, 106 Idaho 513, 681 P.2d 988 (1984); 22 Am.Jur.2d Declaratory Judgments § 33, at 697. This Court, in Harris, adopted the following language from the United States Supreme Court's definition of justiciability as a guiding standard in the context of declaratory judgment actions:

A “controversy” in this sense must be one that is appropriate for judicial determination. A justiciable controversy is thus distinguished from a difference or dispute of a hypothetical or abstract character; from one that is academic or moot. The controversy must be definite and concrete, touching the legal relations of parties having adverse legal interests. It must be a real and substantial controversy admitting of specific relief through a decree of a conclusive character, as distinguished from an opinion advising what the law would be upon a hypothetical state of facts. Where there is such a concrete case admitting of an immediate and definitive determination of the legal rights of the parties in an adversary proceeding upon the facts alleged, the judicial function may be appropriately exercised although the adjudication of the rights of the litigants may not require the award of process or the payment of damages. Aetna Life Ins. Co. v. Haworth, 300 U.S. 227, 240–41, 57 S.Ct. 461, 464, 81 L.Ed. 617 (1937) (citations omitted).

The same principle as pronounced by this Court provides: The Declaratory Judgment Act ... contemplates some specific adversary question or contention based on an existing state of facts, out of which the alleged “rights, status and other legal relations” arise, upon which the court may predicate a judgment “either affirmative or negative in form and effect.” * * * * * * The questioned “right” or “status” may invoke either remedial or preventative relief; it may relate to a right that has either been breached or is only yet in dispute or a status undisturbed but threatened or endangered; but, in either or any event, it must involve actual and existing facts. State v. State Board of Education, 56 Idaho 210, 217, 52 P.2d 141, 144 (1935).

In the present case, there are no actual and existing facts on the record. The record before the trial court, and before this Court, contains nothing more than the statement of counsel that he desired to inquire into the viability of the defense, and that although Rhoades had been examined by a psychiatrist, no opinion in any form as to Rhoades's mental state could be forthcoming unless the court provided an operative legal definition of insanity. The testimony of Officer Rodriguez concerning Rhoades's manner on the night of his arrest likewise does not suffice to create a justiciable controversy on the issue of insanity. The officer stated during the preliminary hearing that on the night of the arrest: Paul Rhoades was either acting as if he was high on some kind of narcotic, or he was high on some kind of narcotics ... he really didn't have much stability ... he had to be helped to walk. He swayed back and forth when he sat down, almost in a drunken stupor. Didn't say too much, and when he did, he mumbled, as if, I would take it, he was not in control of his senses.... Other testimony confirms Officer Rodriguez's impressions of Rhoades's conduct on the night of the arrest, but there is no evidence in the record as to abnormal conduct at any other time. This testimony establishes that Rhoades was having physical difficulty on the night of his arrest, which was assumed by the officers to be the result of drugs or intoxication. The trial court appropriately concluded that such evidence alone does not rise to the level of a showing of the mental condition of the defendant.

The defense argues that any showing that might be required was waived by the prosecution on the defense request for appointment of a psychiatric expert at state expense. The United States Supreme Court, in Ake v. Oklahoma, 470 U.S. 68, 105 S.Ct. 1087, 84 L.Ed.2d 53 (1985), held that the defendant is constitutionally entitled to psychiatric assistance at state expense once a preliminary showing has been made that the mental condition of the defendant is likely to be an issue in the case. Defense counsel urges that the acquiescence by the prosecution and the court in the motion for a court appointed expert without requiring any preliminary showing on the defendant's mental condition, amounts to a waiver of the required showing on the issue. We disagree.

Justiciability is a question of the jurisdiction of the court over the matter at issue. Baird v. State, 574 P.2d 713, 716 (Utah 1978); Mountain West Farm Bur. Mut. Ins. v. Hallmark Ins., 561 P.2d 706 (Wyo.1977). It is axiomatic that a lack of jurisdiction may not be cured by means of stipulation or waiver by the parties. Bowlden v. Bowlden, 118 Idaho 84, 794 P.2d 1140 (1990); White v. Marty, 97 Idaho 85, 540 P.2d 270 (1975), overruled on other grounds by Carr v. Magistrate Court of the First Judicial Dist., 108 Idaho 546, 700 P.2d 949 (1985). Therefore, this defense argument must be rejected. We uphold the trial court's determination that the record does not create a justiciable controversy to support a ruling on the issue of the repeal of the insanity defense. Having done so, we do not reach the constitutional issue of the legislative repeal of the insanity defense.

IV. WITHHOLDING OF EXCULPATORY EVIDENCE BY PROSECUTION

On May 15, 1987, the defense filed a request for discovery, asking for “[a]ll Bingham County and/or Blackfoot City Police reports or investigative materials relative to the Stacy Baldwin homicide which is alleged to have occurred in Bingham County.” On July 2, 1987, the prosecution filed a Supplemental Response to Defendant's Discovery Request, listing the items that it had provided pursuant to the discovery request, including, “[a]ll Bingham County and/or Blackfoot City Police reports” relative to the Baldwin case.

Part of the materials submitted to the defense in this exchange was a supplementary police report by Detective Newbold of the Blackfoot Police Department, which detailed the confession of Kevin Buckholz to the killing of Stacy Baldwin. Buckholz had been arrested by Blackfoot Police Officer Love on March 14, 1987, for drunk and disorderly conduct. Love's brief report indicated that Buckholz stated he had “killed the girl at the mini barn.” Later, while he was in the holding tank, Buckholz initiated conversation with Officer Larry Christian. Christian filled out the following report of the conversation: [A] prisoner in the holding tank started talking to me (Kevin Buckholt) [sic] said he “had problems and needed to be put away cause he couldn't function in the regular world,” he then proceeded to tell me he shot a girl twice in the back. I said what girl and he said “You know the one from the mini barn.” I then asked how many shots did you fire, he said “I don't know I shot several times, I hit her in the back twice.” ... I then asked him what kind of gun he used and he said “a ‘38’ then said no a ‘9’ mm I think....”

Christian reported the incident to Detective Newbold, who summarized the statement in his report. That report was provided to defense counsel for Rhoades pursuant to the discovery request for Blackfoot Police reports. Newbold's report mentions Christian's written report, and outlines that report in detail. However, neither Christian's nor Love's report was provided to the defense. On appeal, Rhoades argues that the prosecution's compliance with the discovery request was inadequate, and in violation of the prosecutor's duty to turn over all exculpatory evidence to the defense.

The test by which to measure the prosecutor's duty to disclose evidence is the materiality of the information at issue. The determination of “materiality” is guided by whether the information tends to create a reasonable doubt about guilt, State v. Brown, 98 Idaho 209, 560 P.2d 880 (1977), or is otherwise “obviously of such substantial value to the defense that elementary fairness requires it to be disclosed even without a specific request.” United States v. Agurs, 427 U.S. 97, 110, 96 S.Ct. 2392, 2401, 49 L.Ed.2d 342 (1976).

We don't believe that the outcome of the trial would have been different had the defense received the two other police reports. Officer Newbold's report provided enough detail to stimulate additional inquiry if the defense had been inclined to do so. The defense had the information that there was a confession to the Baldwin murder, the identity of the confessor, the details of the confession, and the name of the officer who heard the confession. With that information they could have contacted Officer Christian and Kevin Buckholz to determine whether the confession was worth pursuing. The defense claims that had they received the two additional reports from the prosecution then they would have made more of an effort to locate Buckholz. We believe that the defense could have made that determination without the other two police reports.

V. JAILHOUSE INFORMANT TESTIMONY

David Holm testified at trial concerning conversations he had with the defendant while they were in the same cell. At that time, he stated that he had not been offered anything in exchange for his testimony. Later, at a post conviction hearing, Holm testified that he was dissatisfied with the sentence he received in his case, and that had he known the sentence he was going to receive, he would not have testified at the Rhoades trial. Appellant asserts that this change is grounds for a new trial. We disagree.

At the post conviction hearing, when questioned about what he thought he would receive in exchange for his testimony, Holm said: He [the prosecuting attorney] couldn't ever make any promises. Nobody ever did actually make it a promise.... They couldn't guarantee what the judges would do anyway.... I never did expect anything out of it. I hoped. Of course, I think anybody in my position in a situation that they're put under would hope that they would at least get some favorable consideration. But as far as a definite promise or a definite belief, no. I was just—all the time. I did hope. My attorney hoped. And that's about where we're at. We fail to see why misplaced hopes on the part of a witness would be reason to grant a new trial. There is no evidence in the record that any type of reward was promised in exchange for the testimony. In addition, Holm's testimony at trial would not have differed. At the post conviction proceeding, Holm stated: I don't believe there would be any change in my testimony. As far as the case itself. I think the only change there would be as far as—I think would be maybe under the influence. The influences. That actually got me the courage, I guess. I was—you know, I just—I felt assured, You know, that what I was doing was the right thing. And I was assured that it may be in a sense that what I was doing was in essence paying back a debt to society.

The trial court found that this situation did not raise an issue of material fact. We agree.

Appellant further asserts that the trial court should have excluded David Holm's testimony altogether. He argues that jailhouse informants are inherently unreliable, and that Holm, in particular, had a reputation for untruthfulness. We hold that it was not error for the trial court to admit the testimony of David Holm. It is up to the trier of fact to determine the credibility of witnesses: An appellate court may not substitute its judgment for that of the jury regarding the credibility of witnesses, the weight of their testimony, or the reasonable inferences to be drawn from the evidence. State v. Campbell, 104 Idaho 705, 718–19, 662 P.2d 1149, 1162–63 (Ct.App.1983). State v. Clay, 112 Idaho 261, 263, 731 P.2d 804, 806 (Ct.App.1987), review denied. Allowing Holm to testify is not grounds for a new trial. It was the jury's responsibility to weigh the credibility of his testimony.

VI. SUPPRESSION OF INCULPATORY STATEMENTS

Rhoades was arrested March 25, 1987. He was being sought as a suspect in an Idaho murder investigation, when his car was identified in Nevada. A Nevada Highway Patrol Officer, George McIntosh, drove to the scene with two officers from Idaho, Victor Rodriguez and Dennis Shaw. Two Nevada officers, Trooper Neville and Officer Miller, were holding Rhoades at the scene. Another Nevada officer, Shires, arrived at the scene as back up. Shaw testified that as he and Rodriguez approached Rhoades where he was being held against the car by Neville and Miller, Rhoades made a spontaneous statement of, “I did it,” without being directly addressed or questioned by any officer. Miller claims to have heard that first statement, although it was not included in his initial report of the arrest. Miller did include that fact in a supplemental report filed two months later. Officer McIntosh testified that he did not hear the statement, nor was it overheard by Trooper Neville.

After being read his rights, Rhoades was transported to the Highway Patrol Substation in Wells, Nevada. He did not make any statements en route. Officers Shires, Miller, Neville, McIntosh, Shaw, and Rodriguez were present at the station. Shaw made a statement to the defendant to the effect that if he'd been apprehended earlier, the victims of his crimes might still be alive. Rodriguez testified that in response to that statement, Rhoades stated, “I did it.” This second statement at the station was not part of Miller's initial report, although he claims to have overheard it. Both Shires and Miller reported the statement in supplemental reports filed several months after the arrest. The statement was also not recorded by Officer Shaw in his report. Rhoades made no further statements.

Rhoades argues on this appeal that the trial court should have excluded those statements for three reasons: (1) the questionable reliability of the evidence, given the fact that several officers who claimed to overhear the statements failed to record them in their reports until months after the arrest; (2) the failure of the police to tape record the statements; and (3) the statements were the result of the violation of Rhoades's Miranda rights.

On the first point, the defense argues that due process under the state and federal constitutions requires an enhanced degree of reliability during the guilt determination stage of a capital prosecution. We reject this argument. The United States Supreme Court has imposed many procedural protections for capital cases. See Lockett v. Ohio, 438 U.S. 586, 98 S.Ct. 2954, 57 L.Ed.2d 973 (1978). However, these cases do not go so far as to alter the types of evidence or establish a minimum degree of reliability of evidence that is admissible during the fact finding phase of a potential capital case. The prosecution is not required to prove the crime by any higher standard than the “beyond a reasonable doubt” standard used in other criminal cases. Admission of evidence is not governed by any separate rules applicable only to capital cases. Therefore, there is no reason to conclude that testimony which is questionable must be excluded during the guilt determination phase of a capital case. The credibility of evidence in a first degree murder case, as in all others, is an issue for the trier of fact.

Likewise, we cannot accept the contention that in order to be admissible, statements made in custody must be tape recorded by the police. The defense cites an Alaska case, Stephan v. State, 711 P.2d 1156 (Alaska 1985), holding that custodial confessions must be tape recorded in order to be admissible under the due process clause of the Alaska State Constitution. That case represents no more than the prerogative of each state to extend the protections of its own constitution beyond the parameters of federal constitutional guarantees. We decline to adopt Alaska's standard in Idaho.

We now turn to the issue of whether Rhoades's Miranda rights were violated by the police during his arrest and custody. There is some conflict in the record as to whether Rhoades was read his Miranda rights while in the custody of Nevada Officers Miller and Neville, or if he was given the Miranda warnings for the first time by Officer Rodriguez after Rodriguez, Shaw, and McIntosh arrived at the scene. Although the record does not support the trial court's finding that the first statement by Rhoades was preceded by a Miranda warning, that factual issue does not affect our conclusion that both statements were properly admitted into evidence.

The first “I did it” statement, while Rhoades was handcuffed in the parking lot was apparently spontaneous. So spontaneous in fact, that according to uncontested police accounts, Rhoades made the statement without being questioned or otherwise addressed by any of the officers present. As a spontaneous statement, it was admissible whether it occurred before or after Rhoades was read his Miranda rights. “Any statement given freely and voluntarily without any compelling influences is, of course, admissible in evidence.... Volunteered statements of any kind are not barred by the Fifth Amendment.” Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436, 478, 86 S.Ct. 1602, 1630, 16 L.Ed.2d 694 (1966). Although the statement lacked any context to make it meaningful, the trial court correctly concluded that it was for the jury to decide to what Rhoades referred when he said “I did it” at the scene of the arrest.

The second statement at the station house, made in response to Shaw's comment, is also admissible. The trial court found that there was insufficient evidence in the record to support the inference that Rhoades asserted his right to remain silent at any time during the arrest and booking. Officer McIntosh did testify that after Rodriguez finished reading the Miranda rights, Rhoades nodded as if to indicate that he understood. Then McIntosh testified that Rodriguez said something else, which McIntosh could not hear, whereupon Rhoades shook his head. McIntosh took the gesture to mean that Rhoades was asserting his right to remain silent. Those facts are the sole basis in the record for the contention that Rhoades did assert his right to remain silent. There is no evidence in the record as to what Rhoades was responding to when he shook his head negatively. On the strength of this evidence alone, the trial court declined to infer that the shake of the head indicated a desire to remain silent. That finding is not clearly erroneous, given the absolute lack of evidence to the contrary.

Miranda teaches that, “[o]nce warnings have been given, the subsequent procedure is clear. If the individual indicates in any manner, at any time, prior to or during questioning, that he wishes to remain silent, the interrogation must cease.” Miranda, 384 U.S. at 473–74, 86 S.Ct. at 1627. In this case, based on the record before us, Rhoades did not assert his right to remain silent. If he had, Shaw's comment, properly found by the trial court to be “the functional equivalent of interrogation,” would have been improper, and the second statement would not have been admissible. The requirement that interrogation must cease comes into play when the accused indicates in any manner that he or she does not desire to converse with the police, or that the presence of an attorney is desired. After rights are read to and acknowledged by the detainee and until the right to silence or counsel is asserted, the police may initiate questioning.

The record indicates that Rhoades was read his rights before the second statement, and acknowledged that he understood them. Although there is evidence that Rhoades was heavily influenced by narcotics at the time of the arrest, Officer Shaw testified that while searching his person, he engaged Rhoades in conversation to test his alertness and found that he had sufficient capacity to understand what was going on around him. In sum, Rhoades had been instructed upon and understood his rights at the time of arrest, and there is insufficient evidence to indicate that he asserted his right to remain silent. For the foregoing reasons we conclude that the second statement made in response to Shaw's “interrogation” is not subject to suppression under Miranda v. Arizona.

VII. ACCELERATED POST CONVICTION PROCEEDINGS

Idaho Code § 19–2719 requires that in capital cases, post conviction relief must be requested within 42 days after the judgment is filed, and completed within 90 days after that. Appellant urges this Court to reconsider our decision in State v. Beam, 115 Idaho 208, 766 P.2d 678 (1988), which held that I.C. § 19–2719 did not violate the defendant's constitutional rights under equal protection analysis. We decline to do so.

Defendant also claims that I.C. § 19–2719 violates his due process rights, which Beam did not address. Procedural due process issues are raised whenever a person risks being deprived of life, liberty, or property interests because of governmental action. The requirement is that there must be some process to ensure that the individual is not arbitrarily deprived of his rights in violation of the state or federal constitutions. This requirement is met when the defendant is provided with notice and an opportunity to be heard. Armstrong v. Manzo, 380 U.S. 545, 85 S.Ct. 1187, 14 L.Ed.2d 62 (1965); Mullane v. Central Hanover Bank & Trust Co., 339 U.S. 306, 70 S.Ct. 652, 94 L.Ed. 865 (1950). The United States Supreme Court provides us with a balancing test to determine if procedural safeguards are adequate in Mathews v. Eldridge, 424 U.S. 319, 96 S.Ct. 893, 47 L.Ed.2d 18 (1976). The three factors to be weighed are: (1) the private interests at stake; (2) the government's interest; and (3) the risk that the procedures used will lead to erroneous results. U.S.C.A. Const.Amends. 5, 14. This Court has employed this due process test in State v. Ankney, 109 Idaho 1, 704 P.2d 333 (1985).

First, obviously, the defendant's interest is in being afforded an adequate opportunity to present legal and factual issues in his defense. Second, the government's interest in enacting I.C. § 19–2719, stated by the legislature, is “to accomplish the purpose of eliminating unnecessary delay in carrying out a valid death sentence.” This was determined by this Court to be a legitimate goal in State v. Beam, 115 Idaho 208, 766 P.2d 678 (1988). The focus, then, of our present inquiry, is the third prong of the Mathews v. Eldridge test, we must determine whether or not I.C. § 19–2719 provides an adequate process to prevent erroneous results and to ensure that death sentences are not carried out so as to arbitrarily deprive a defendant of his life. The statute requires the defendant to file a petition for post-conviction relief within 42 days of the filing of the judgment imposing the sentence of death. These challenges arise out of the judicial proceeding just concluded. At this point, counsel has been closely involved with the case for some time, has been present at trial, and has had notice of all issues that are appropriate to be raised within this 42 day limit. All that counsel is required to do is to organize all challenges and issues that arose during trial and are appropriate for appeal within 42 days. That is not an unduly burdensome task. The statute provides adequate notice to the defendant of exactly what is required of him, and sufficient opportunity for all challenges to be heard. In addition, it serves the purpose of the legislature by preventing the unnecessary delays that occur with so much frequency in capital cases.

In Stuart v. State, 118 Idaho 932, 801 P.2d 1283 (1990), this court remanded a second and subsequent petition for post-conviction relief to the district court for an evidentiary hearing. Stuart had only learned of the facts raised in the second petition after the first petition had been filed. We held that pursuant to I.C. § 19–4908, the second petition was not barred.FN1 It was necessary for the trial court to hold an evidentiary hearing to determine if Stuart's constitutional rights were violated. FN1. It must be noted that Stuart was not decided pursuant to I.C. § 19–2719. This statute was not cited by either Stuart or the State. In Stuart, we cited Palmer v. Dermitt, 102 Idaho 591, 635 P.2d 955 (1981) for the sole proposition that, under the appropriate circumstances, I.C. § 19–4908 did not bar successive petitions for post-conviction relief. At this point, it is important to understand some very important facts.

Palmer was decided pursuant to the waiver provisions of I.C. § 19–4908. Subsequent to Palmer, the legislature enacted I.C. § 19–2719 in 1984. This modified post-conviction proceedings in death penalty cases. Idaho Code § 19–2719(3) requires a defendant to “file any legal or factual challenge as to the sentence or conviction that is known or reasonably should be known.” Idaho Code § 19–2719 limits post-conviction relief to one petition unless it is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the trial judge that this issues being subsequently raised were not “known or reasonably should be known.” Ineffective assistance of counsel is one of those claims that should be reasonably known immediately upon the completion of the trial and can be raised in a post-conviction proceeding.FN2 FN2. In re Cordero, 46 Cal.3d 161, 249 Cal.Rptr. 342, 756 P.2d 1370 (1988) (Habeas Corpus); People v. Bean, 46 Cal.3d 919, 251 Cal.Rptr. 467, 760 P.2d 996 (1988) (Habeas Corpus); Bundy v. Deland, 763 P.2d 803 (Utah 1988); Daniels v. State, 100 Nev. 579, 688 P.2d 315 (1984); Sims v. State, 295 N.W.2d 420 (Iowa 1980); Commonwealth v. Russell, 477 Pa. 147, 383 A.2d 866 (1978).

A careful reading of Palmer reveals that the defendant raised an ineffective assistance of counsel claim in a habeas corpus petition [treated as a petition for post-conviction relief] subsequent to his direct appeal and first post-conviction proceeding. After the direct appeal and first petition failed to produce favorable results, the defendant obtained new appellate counsel and brought a subsequent petition. This Court held that because the defendant had filed a pro se petition immediately after trial raising the ineffective assistance claim, but which claim was omitted through no fault of his own, the defendant had not waived his claims and the subsequent petition was not barred. Therefore we hold that I.C. § 19–2719 provides a defendant one opportunity to raise all challenges to the conviction and sentence in a petition for post-conviction relief except in those unusual cases where it can be demonstrated that the issues raised were not known and reasonably could not have been known within the time frame allowed by the statute. The legislature has seen fit to appropriately limit the time frame within which to bring challenges which are known or which reasonably should be known. The process encompassed in I.C. § 19–2719 providing for review by the trial court and then this Court, provides adequate opportunity to present the issues raised and to have them adequately reviewed. Therefore, I.C. § 19–2719 is not unconstitutional under due process analysis.

VIII. VICTIM IMPACT STATEMENTS

We now turn to the issue of the victim impact statement contained in the presentence report. Booth v. Maryland, 482 U.S. 496, 107 S.Ct. 2529, 96 L.Ed.2d 440 (1987), prohibits the introduction of victim impact statements during the sentencing phase of a capital case as violative of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In Booth, there were two types of information presented in the victim impact statement. The first type consists of “a description of the emotional trauma suffered by the family and the personal characteristics of the victims.” The second type contains the “family members' opinions and characterizations of the crimes.” Both types of information are excluded because, “its admission creates a constitutionally unacceptable risk that the jury may impose the death penalty in an arbitrary and capricious manner.” Booth, 482 U.S. at 503, 508, 107 S.Ct. at 2533, 2535. Both types of information are present here. In the present case, the portion of the presentence investigation report containing the victim impact statements is as follows:

The victim, Stacy Dawn Baldwin, who was age 21 at the time of her death, was employed as a night clerk at the Mini–Barn Convenience Store in Blackfoot, Idaho. It was while she was discharging her duties in that capacity, that she was robbed, kidnapped and shot to death on 2/28/87. Mrs. Baldwin was married and resided with her husband Myron Baldwin, in Blackfoot, Idaho. She and her husband were active members of the LDS Church. She was athletic and maintained her physical fitness by exercise and swimming. He [sic] husband Myron, indicated that he and Stacy had met in high school in 1981. They had planned to marry after he completed a Mission for the LDS Church. He stated that he was sent on his mission to Canada in 1984, where he spent two years. He returned in April of 1986, and he and Stacy were married on 8/1/86. He indicated that he still suffers emotional stress caused by the senseless murder of his wife. He stated that he wants the maximum sentence given to the man who killed Stacy. He added that he believes in the death sentence. Mr. Baldwin further indicated “I don't want him to ever have the chance to do this to anyone else.” Mr. Baldwin indicated that on the night she was abducted and killed, he should have stayed with her at the Mini–Barn as he usually did on Friday nights, but he had been ill with influenza and she told him she would be OK and for him to stay home.

Evelyn Baldwin, Myron's mother indicated that for several months after Stacy was killed, Myron “Shut the world out,” but time has tempered his pain somewhat and he is again socializing with family and friends. She stated that the Baldwin family is satisfied with the outcome of the trial. She related that they favor a death sentence in this case. The victim's mother, Verna Taylor, recalled in an emotional interview that her daughter's murder was the “biggest shock of her life.” She indicated that the victim had seven siblings all of who still grieve at the loss of their sister. She explained that “Stacy did everything right in her life and didn't deserve to die like that.” She indicated that she has to deal with her feeling about Stacy's death everyday. Mrs. Taylor stated “I hope he burns in hell for what he did to Stacy. I'm glad she fought him.” She added “I approve of capital punishment.”

This is undoubtedly a victim impact statement of the kind contemplated in Booth, and as such, it was error for the trial court to admit it. The next level of inquiry is to determine if the victim impact statement constitutes harmless error under the State v. Paz, 118 Idaho 542, 798 P.2d 1 (1990), exception. In Paz, the Court wrote: This decision should not be interpreted in any fashion to condone or permit victim impact statements in capital cases. Victim impact statements are clearly proscribed by Booth v. Maryland and State v. Charboneau. It is a rare capital case where the inclusion of a victim impact statement will not fatally flaw the entire sentencing procedure. Paz, 118 Idaho at 558, 798 P.2d at 17.

The test to apply to determine if the use of such statements was harmless is whether this Court is assured that “it was harmless beyond a reasonable doubt.” Chapman v. California, 386 U.S. 18, 24, 87 S.Ct. 824, 828, 17 L.Ed.2d 705 (1967). Here, three members of the victim's family commented. All three explicitly said that they favored the death penalty in this case. The victim's husband stated that “he wants the maximum sentence given to the man who killed Stacy,” and “that he believes in the death sentence.” The victim's mother-in-law said that the Baldwin family favors a death sentence in this case. The victim's mother stated, “I hope he burns in hell for what he did to Stacy. I'm glad she fought him.... I approve of capital punishment.”

We cannot determine from the record if the trial judge considered or relied on these statements in imposing the death sentence. Since the trial court allowed the victim impact statements to be filed for consideration, we must assume that he did consider them. In that the victim impact statements presented to the court were considered is error under the rule of Booth v. Maryland, 482 U.S. 496, 107 S.Ct. 2529, 96 L.Ed.2d 440 (1987), and State v. Charboneau, 116 Idaho 129, 774 P.2d 299 (1989), we must consider if this error requires reversal. This Court, in State v. Paz, 118 Idaho 542, 798 P.2d 1 (1990), relying on Chapman v. California, 386 U.S. 18, 87 S.Ct. 824, 17 L.Ed.2d 705 (1967), and Satterwhite v. Texas, 486 U.S. 249, 108 S.Ct. 1792, 100 L.Ed.2d 284 (1988), held that victim impact statements included in the presentence report while error could, under appropriate circumstances, be harmless error. The trial court in this case carefully weighed the evidence, including aggravating and mitigating factors. There is no indication that the victim impact statements diverted the trial court from its primary function of considering the person being sentenced and not the victim or the victim's family.

Obviously, the trial court does not make decisions in a vacuum. By the time a judge is called upon to decide on a sentence, the judge has heard the testimony and evidence put on at trial, has seen the impact of the crimes on the victim's family and community, and has been closely involved with the details of the case, sometimes for years. It is evident from the findings of the trial court that the nature of this crime was such that the victim impact statements, if they were considered at all, were not a decisive factor in the decision to impose the death penalty. The facts recited by the court in passing sentence are facts that would have been known to the trial judge without the victim impact statements. In reviewing the record in this case, we are convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that the victim impact statements in the presentence investigation report, describing the family of the victim and their recommendation of sentence, did not influence the trial court in its imposition of sentence. The error was therefore harmless, and the case need not be remanded for sentencing.

IX. WHETHER THE DEATH PENALTY WAS PROPERLY IMPOSED

Appellant asserts that the trial court failed to adequately consider alternatives to the death penalty. In State v. Leavitt, 116 Idaho 285, 775 P.2d 599 (1989), this Court reversed the imposition of the death penalty and remanded, because: [T]he trial court failed to give adequate consideration of the alternatives which exist between the distant poles of ‘rehabilitation and possible probation,’ or the death penalty. Clearly, alternatives were and are available to a sentencing court, such as a fixed life sentence. Leavitt, 116 Idaho at 294, 775 P.2d at 608.

The Court in Leavitt did not specify what constitutes “adequate consideration of the alternatives,” or exactly what the trial court would have to say to show that the alternatives were adequately considered. Here, in the Findings of the Court in Considering Death Penalty the trial court did not discuss alternatives to the death penalty. However, after those findings were issued, the parties were allowed to file briefs in response to an evidentiary hearing and the defendant raised the issue of alternatives to the death penalty as required by Leavitt. The trial court then addressed this in the Supplement to Memorandum Decision and Order. He stated: The court carefully considered the objectives of sentencing and expressly finds that any rehabilitation that is possible is heavily outweighed by the need to protect society, deter the crime of murder and to punish and obtain retribution for the wrong committed. The court considered penalties less than death, and determines that in this case the imposition of the death penalty would not be unjust but that the imposition of any other sentence would seriously depreciate the seriousness of the crime committed. If any situation ever warranted the death penalty, it is clearly manifest in this case. We hold that this is sufficient to indicate that the trial court did consider alternatives to the death penalty and decided against imposing them after contemplating the unique circumstances of this case.

Defendant next argues that he is entitled to a new presentence report and a new sentencing hearing in order to have the opportunity to present new mitigating circumstances, such as witnesses attesting to his cooperation as a prisoner. We find no support for this argument.

In his Petition for Post Conviction Relief, defendant argued that the trial court did not weigh the mitigating circumstances against each aggravating circumstance as required by State v. Leavitt, 116 Idaho 285, 775 P.2d 599 (1989), and State v. Charboneau, 116 Idaho 129, 774 P.2d 299 (1989). Charboneau set out the requirement: [T]hat all the mitigating circumstances presented must be weighed against each of the aggravating circumstances separately. We hold that the trial court may sentence the defendant to death, only if the trial court finds that all the mitigating circumstances do not outweigh the gravity of each of the aggravating circumstances found and make imposition of death unjust. Charboneau, 116 Idaho at 153, 774 P.2d at 323.

Here, the trial court set forth four and a half pages of mitigating circumstances in his Findings of the Court in Considering the Death Penalty. He was well aware of the requirement in Leavitt and Charboneau and stated: In the weighing process, the court carefully avoids “duplicating” or “stacking” the statutory aggravating factors and weighs each and every mitigating factor found, both singularly and collectively, against each of the statutory aggravating factors. This statement, plus the extensive sections detailing the mitigating factors and aggravating circumstances, is sufficient to show that the trial court completed the weighing process satisfactorily. It would be tedious and repetitive for the court to state each mitigating factor over and over for the five aggravating circumstances found. It is enough to, as in this case, have one section setting forth all mitigating factors and one section setting forth all aggravating circumstances.

As for the defendant's claim that the trial court engaged in impermissible speculation and overemphasized aggravating factors, appellant cites no specific examples in his brief, but says only that “certain comments indicate a predisposed negative attitude towards the defendant.” We find no merit in this argument.

The final issue presented by the defendant concerning the imposition of the death penalty is that he was improperly sentenced by a judge without jury input. This Court has held “that there is no federal constitutional requirement of jury participation in the sentencing process and that the decision to have jury participation in the sentencing process, as contrasted with judicial discretion sentencing, is within the policy determination of the individual states.” State v. Creech, 105 Idaho 362, 373, 670 P.2d 463, 474 (1983), cert. denied, 465 U.S. 1051, 104 S.Ct. 1327, 79 L.Ed.2d 722 (1984). In addition, the United States Supreme Court held in Clemons v. Mississippi, 494 U.S. 738, 745, 110 S.Ct. 1441, 1446, 108 L.Ed.2d 725 (1990), that “[a]ny argument that the Constitution requires that a jury impose the sentence of death or make the findings prerequisite to imposition of such a sentence has been soundly rejected by prior decisions of this Court.” In Walton v. Arizona, U.S. , 110 S.Ct. 3047, 111 L.Ed.2d 511 (1990), the United States Supreme Court held that Arizona's statute which, like Idaho's, provides for sentencing by a judge in capital cases is not unconstitutional.

X. COMPELLING DEFENSE EXPERT TO PREPARE A WRITTEN REPORT OR TO BE INTERVIEWED BEFORE TESTIFYING

The defendant hired a ballistics and hair expert to examine the State's evidence. The expert did not prepare or provide any written reports to the defense. The prosecutor sought an order from the court requiring the defense to “provide the State with copies of reports of examinations conducted by the defense experts ... whom the defendant intends to call at trial,” or in the alternative to allow the prosecutor to “interview the defense experts; if reports are not, or have not yet been prepared....” The defense objected to this procedure. The trial court ruled that the expert must either provide a written report to the prosecutor or allow the prosecutor to interview him pursuant to Rule 16(c)(2) of the Idaho Criminal Rules, which provides:

Upon written request of the prosecuting attorney, the defendant shall permit the State to inspect and copy or photograph any results or reports of physical or mental examinations and of scientific tests or experiments made in connection with the particular case, or copies thereof, within the possession or control of the defendant, which the defendant intends to introduce in evidence at the trial, or which were prepared by a witness whom the defendant intends to call at the trial when the results or reports relate to testimony of the witness. Idaho Criminal Rule 16(c)(2) clearly allows access to reports that the defendant intends to introduce at trial or that were prepared by a witness whom the defendant intends to call at trial. However, in ordering a defense expert to prepare a report for opposing counsel, or to submit to an interview by opposing counsel, the court overstepped the boundaries of the rule. The Washington Supreme Court interpreted an analogous criminal discovery rule, in State v. Hutchinson, 111 Wash.2d 872, 766 P.2d 447 (1989), which involved a similar situation. They held that:

It is undisputed that the defendant may be required to disclose any existing expert's report he intends to use at trial. However, the rule does not say that an expert can be required to make a report at the request of the opposing party. Defense counsel claims that no written reports have been requested, received or written. The clear language of the rule does not authorize the trial court to require the defendant's experts to prepare written reports for the State when they have not been prepared for the defendant. Hutchinson, 111 Wash.2d at 877, 766 P.2d at 450.

However, we do not believe that this error resulted in prejudice to the defendant. This case differs from Hutchinson, because here, the defense did anticipate having the expert prepare a report, but told the prosecutor that it would not be available until a week before trial. The prosecutor was concerned that this would not be enough time in which to use the evidence to prepare for trial. In managing the trial procedure, the court set a deadline for the production of the expert report, which was within his authority.

XI. DENIAL OF MOTION FOR CONTINUANCE

The defendant planned to call an expert witness, Mr. Fox, to counter the State's ballistic evidence. He was unable to attend due to prior commitments. The defense filed a motion for a continuance, which the trial court denied. The defense then made alternative arrangements with another expert, Ned Stuart, whose findings covered the same area as Fox's conclusions. During the course of the trial, one of Mr. Fox's commitments was taken care of, and he was available to testify. Defendant contends that had he called Fox, the State would then have called Stuart.

Rhoades asserts that it was an abuse of discretion for the trial court to deny the motion for continuance because it resulted in prejudice to the defendant. We disagree. A decision to grant or deny a motion for continuance is vested in the sound discretion of the trial court. State v. Richardson, 95 Idaho 446, 511 P.2d 263 (1973), cert. denied, 414 U.S. 1163, 94 S.Ct. 928, 39 L.Ed.2d 117 (1974). Here, the defendant has not shown that the trial court abused its discretion by denying the continuance. The purpose of the expert witness's testimony was to counter the State's ballistics evidence. This was done. We do not find prejudice to the defendant resulting in an unfair trial as a result of the testimony being given by one expert witness as opposed to another.

XII. PROPORTIONALITY

Idaho Code § 19–2827(c)(3) requires this Court to determine in each capital case, “whether the sentence of death is excessive or disproportionate to the penalty imposed in similar cases, considering both the crime and the defendant.” Our perusal of the legislative history regarding the proportionality of sentences does not offer much guidance. The Statement of Purpose and the committee minutes for the bill that was eventually passed and codified as I.C. § 19–2827 expressed only a concern that the Idaho statute be updated to reflect recent ruling by the United States Supreme Court:

STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

Only a few years ago, the United States Supreme Court made new “rules” concerning imposition of the death penalty for serious crimes. So that we conformed with this U.S. Supreme Court interpretation of the federal Constitution, the Idaho Legislature enacted in 1973 our present death penalty Sections 18–4003 and 18–4004, Idaho Code . Then, last year, the United States Supreme Court again changed the rules relating to capital punishment—after many states, like Idaho, had acted in response to its previous decision. The Court, in five cases, set forth new, more definitive rules concerning sentencing where the death penalty was sought to be imposed. The purpose of this bill is to codify into Idaho law these present requirements imposed on the states by these most recent United States Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment so that we will conform with this latest expression of the law. There is no mention of proportionality, or any expression by the legislature that we are required to review the proportionality of sentences with a special standard or test. The requirement that the death sentence not be disproportionate to “the penalty imposed in similar cases,” is one of several considerations this Court must examine in each death penalty case. The legislature did not see fit to establish a separate standard for proportionality review of sentences when I.C. § 19–2827 was enacted.

This Court looked at the proportionality of death sentences in State v. Creech, 105 Idaho 362, 670 P.2d 463 (1983), and reviewed several cases in which the death penalty had been imposed or could have been imposed. The Court compared the facts of the crimes with the facts of the case they were reviewing to determine whether or not the sentence was disproportionate. This is the procedure that has been followed by this Court. We must do likewise. In this case, Paul Ezra Rhoades kidnapped Stacy Baldwin from the convenience store where she was working, forced her into a pickup truck and drove her to a secluded area where he attempted to attack her. The trial court found that Baldwin fought back, and: [F]inally as she was on hands and knees trying to get away, he shot at her with his pistol. The first shots missed her and made glancing marks in the snow. Finally his shots hit her. One ricocheting bullet lodged in her elbow and one bullet went through her back and through her lungs. The tread on the soles of his boots left their imprint as he walked towards Stacy, but then he left while she was still alive. She lived for about one to one and one half hours and then died alone in the cold.

In considering this crime and this defendant, compared to similar crimes and similar defendants,FN3 the record in this case and the district court's findings and conclusions in imposing the sentence, we hold that the death sentence is not excessive or disproportionate. FN3. State v. Pizzuto, 119 Idaho 742, 810 P.2d 680 (1991); State v. Enno, 119 Idaho 392, 807 P.2d 610 (1991); State v. Sivak, 119 Idaho 320, 806 P.2d 413 (1990); State v. Paz, 118 Idaho 542, 798 P.2d 1 (1990); State v. Smith, 117 Idaho 891, 792 P.2d 916 (1990); State v. Lankford, 116 Idaho 860, 781 P.2d 197, stay granted, 490 U.S. 1061, 109 S.Ct. 2058, 104 L.Ed.2d 623 (1989); State v. Charboneau, 116 Idaho 129, 774 P.2d 299 (1989); McKinney v. State, 115 Idaho 1125, 772 P.2d 1219 (1989); State v. Fetterly, 115 Idaho 231, 766 P.2d 701 (1988); State v. Scroggins, 110 Idaho 380, 716 P.2d 1152 (1985), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 989, 107 S.Ct. 582, 93 L.Ed.2d 585 (1986); State v. Windsor, 110 Idaho 410, 716 P.2d 1182 (1985), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 964, 107 S.Ct. 463, 93 L.Ed.2d 408 (1986); State v. Fetterly, 109 Idaho 766, 710 P.2d 1202 (1985), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 870, 107 S.Ct. 239, 93 L.Ed.2d 164 (1986); State v. Beam, 109 Idaho 616, 710 P.2d 526 (1985); State v. Stuart, 110 Idaho 163, 715 P.2d 833 (1985); State v. Bainbridge, 108 Idaho 273, 698 P.2d 335 (1985); State v. Aragon, 107 Idaho 358, 690 P.2d 293 (1984); State v. McKinney, 107 Idaho 180, 687 P.2d 570 (1984); State v. Paradis, 106 Idaho 117, 676 P.2d 31 (1983), cert. denied, 468 U.S. 1220, 104 S.Ct. 3592, 82 L.Ed.2d 888 (1984); State v. Gibson, 106 Idaho 54, 675 P.2d 33 (1983), cert. denied, 468 U.S. 1220, 104 S.Ct. 3592, 82 L.Ed.2d 888 (1984); State v. Sivak, 105 Idaho 900, 674 P.2d 396 (1983), cert. denied, 468 U.S. 1220, 104 S.Ct. 3591, 82 L.Ed.2d 887 (1984); State v. Creech, 105 Idaho 362, 670 P.2d 463 (1983); State v. Major, 105 Idaho 4, 665 P.2d 703 (1983); State v. Mitchell, 104 Idaho 493, 660 P.2d 1336, cert. denied, 461 U.S. 934, 103 S.Ct. 2101, 77 L.Ed.2d 308 (1983); State v. Carter, 103 Idaho 917, 655 P.2d 434 (1981); State v. Olin, 103 Idaho 391, 648 P.2d 203 (1982); State v. Osborn, 102 Idaho 405, 631 P.2d 187 (1981); State v. Griffiths, 101 Idaho 163, 610 P.2d 522 (1980); State v. Padilla, 101 Idaho 713, 620 P.2d 286 (1980); State v. Fuchs, 100 Idaho 341, 597 P.2d 227 (1979); State v. Needs, 99 Idaho 883, 591 P.2d 130 (1979); State v. Lindquist, 99 Idaho 766, 589 P.2d 101 (1979).

XIII. CONCLUSION

After independently reviewing the record and transcript describing the character of the defendant, the nature of the crime of which he has been convicted, the circumstances of the crime of which he has been convicted, we hold that there existed an adequate basis for imposing the death penalty. The judgment entered and sentence imposed are affirmed. Upon issuance of the remittitur, the district court shall set a new execution date. I.C. § 19–2719(11).


BISTLINE, Justice, concurring in the result and specially concurring as to Part XII.

Concurring generally in most of the Court's opinion, I do question the propriety of citing to companion cases which were facially not at all proportional, referring to State v. Fetterly and State v. Windsor; State v. Beam and State v. Scroggins; State v. Bainbridge and State v. Sivak. Also, upon revisiting my dissent in State v. Major, it is seen as another case which the majority should refrain from citing. As to the companion cases, Fetterly, Beam, and Sivak are awaiting execution; Windsor, Scroggins, and Bainbridge will not suffer that fate. Further enlightenment is readily available in Fetterly, 115 Idaho at 236, 766 P.2d at 706. Even more enlightening are the trial court's remarks at sentencing Karla Windsor to be executed, 110 Idaho at 425–27, 716 P.2d at 1197–99, under the heading of “Findings of Facts and Argument Found in Possible Mitigation,” and concluding with the imposition of the death sentence, plus the remainder of the sentencing remarks set out in Appendix B “Sentencing,” 110 Idaho at 444, 716 P.2d at 1216. For the views of the sentencing judge following this Supreme Court's opinion which vacated the sentence of death and remanded for resentencing, see Part I of State v. Fetterly, 115 Idaho at 232–33, 766 P.2d at 702–03.

In sum, it is submitted that Justice McDevitt's opinion for the Court is a first step in a better direction. Ad hoc assessments of a capital murderer's right to live in perpetual confinement, or be executed should eschew all prior notions (literally, not figuratively) of proportionality, in which this Court has, by rote citation, allowed itself to indulge. Justice McDevitt, at the close of his opinion, correctly observes that Justice Shepard in authoring the 1983 Creech opinion,FN4 reviewed several death penalty cases which in time were subsequent to the 1977 legislative amendment of Idaho's death sentencing provisions. Justice Shepard found and cited to Creech, Lindquist, Needs, and Osborn.FN5 The 1979 Creech case was distinct from the 1983 Creech case, and Justice Shepard detailed the salient facts which led to imposition of death sentences, and concluded that Creech's murder of Dale Jensen was on a par with the murders committed by Osborn, Needs, and Lindquist. The recitation of the cases which he stated as having been reviewed was unnecessary.FN6 FN4. State v. Creech, 105 Idaho 362, 374, 670 P.2d 463, 475 (1983). FN5. State v. Creech, 99 Idaho 779, 589 P.2d 114 (1979); State v. Lindquist, 99 Idaho 766, 589 P.2d 101 (1979); State v. Needs, 99 Idaho 883, 591 P.2d 130 (1979); and State v. Osborn, 102 Idaho 405, 631 P.2d 187 (1981). FN6. The lengthy recitation of the cases in Justice Shepard's opinion will be found in footnote 2, 105 Idaho at 375, 670 P.2d at 476.

It is also high time to comply with our Idaho Constitution and put the awesome decision of life or death back in the hands of twelve tried and true jurors. It was ever thus prior to the adoption of the Idaho Constitution. Just three years ago, Justice Johnson, in Steed v. Young, 115 Idaho 247, 252, 766 P.2d 717, 720 (1988), cited to Christensen v. Hollingsworth, 6 Idaho 87, 93, 53 P. 211, 212 (1898), for the proposition that, “art. 1, § 7 of our Constitution simply secures the right to jury trial ‘as it existed at the date of the adoption of the Constitution.’ ” Justice Huntley has stated the same, and added that in the context of a capital case the jury at the time of statehood had the power to decide between the penalty of life imprisonment, or death, by the degree of murder declared in the verdict. His views are perpetuated, along with my own, in State v. Creech, 105 Idaho at 375–412, 670 P.2d at 476–513.

JOHNSON, Justice, concurring and concurring specially.

I concur in all parts of the Court's opinion, except part XII (Proportionality), in which I concur specially. The legislature has directed us to determine “[w]hether the sentence of death is excessive or disproportionate to the penalty imposed in similar cases, considering both the crime and the defendant.” I.C. § 19–2827(c)(3). The legislature copied this provision from the death sentencing scheme enacted in Georgia following the decision of the United States Supreme Court in Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238, 92 S.Ct. 2726, 33 L.Ed.2d 346 (1972). Ga.Code Ann. § 17–10–35(c)(3) (1982).

In Pulley v. Harris, 465 U.S. 37, 42–43, 104 S.Ct. 871, 875–76, 79 L.Ed.2d 29, 35–36 (1984), the Supreme Court differentiated between traditional proportionality and the proportionality to which I.C. § 19–2827(c)(3) refers: Traditionally, “proportionality” has been used with reference to an abstract evaluation of the appropriateness of a sentence for a particular crime. Looking to the gravity of the offense and the severity of the penalty, to sentences imposed for other crimes, and to sentencing practices in other jurisdictions, this Court has occasionally struck down punishments as inherently disproportionate, and therefore cruel and unusual, when imposed for a particular crime or category of crime. The death penalty is not in all cases a disproportionate penalty in this sense. The proportionality review sought by Harris, required by the Court of Appeals, and provided for in numerous state statutes is of a different sort. This sort of proportionality review presumes that the death sentence is not disproportionate to the crime in the traditional sense. It purports to inquire instead whether the penalty is nonetheless unacceptable in a particular case because disproportionate to the punishment imposed on others convicted of the same crime. (Citations and footnotes omitted). In Pulley, the Supreme Court ruled that the statutory proportionality review mandated by statutes such as I.C. § 19–2827(c)(3) is not required by the eighth amendment. Id. In McCleskey v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 279, 306, 107 S.Ct. 1756, 1775, 95 L.Ed.2d 262, 288 (1987), the Supreme Court reaffirmed that this statutory proportionality review is not constitutionally required “where the statutory procedures adequately channel the sentencer's discretion.”

Recently, the United States District Court for the District of Idaho noted that proportionality review is not constitutionally required but that Pulley and McCleskey “make clear that proportionality review may be considered and implemented by the states as an additional safeguard against arbitrarily imposed death sentences.” Beam v. Paskett, 744 F.Supp. 958, 960 (D.Idaho 1990) (emphasis in original).

Therefore, I conclude that the review required by I.C. § 19–2827(c)(3) is entirely governed by the statutory intent of the legislature and not by any constitutional considerations. This statutory intent is revealed by the other provisions of I.C. § 19–2827 and by decisions of this Court applying the statute. I.C. § 19–2827(g) provides that the Court “shall collect and preserve the records of all cases in which the penalty of death was imposed from and including the year 1975.” In State v. Creech, 105 Idaho 362, 375 n. 2, 670 P.2d 463, 476 n. 2 (1983), the Court read I.C. § 19–2827(c)(3) and (g) together “as requiring a comparison of the capital cases from 1975 to the present.” I.C. § 19–2827(a) provides that this Court must review a death penalty sentence “on the record.” In State v. Scroggins, 110 Idaho 380, 387, 716 P.2d 1152, 1159 (1985), the Court construed I.C. § 19–2827(a) and (c)(3) together to require “an independent review of the sentence on the record.” In Scroggins, the Court concluded that the sentence of death imposed in that case was “excessive and disproportionate to the penalty imposed in similar cases, considering both the crime and the defendant.” 110 Idaho at 387, 716 P.2d at 1159. The Court said:

We have painstakingly considered the record, and in so doing, have focused not only on the crime and the circumstances surrounding its commission but on the age, characteristics, criminal record and personal involvement of this defendant. We must conclude that the death sentence should not have been imposed in this case because in light of the following considerations, the death sentence as applied to this defendant was excessive. Id. (emphasis in original).

Among the considerations discussed by the Court in Scroggins were that Scroggins did not have a history of violent criminal conduct, that his mental age was only 13.8 years, that he was under tremendous psychological pressure, and that he had failed to develop mature responses to stressful situations. 110 Idaho at 388, 716 P.2d at 1160. In State v. Windsor, 110 Idaho 410, 420–22, 716 P.2d 1182, 1192–94 (1985), the Court said: Whenever the death penalty is imposed this Court is required to conduct an independent review of the record to insure ... that when both the crime and the defendant are considered, a sentence of death is not excessive or disproportionate. After careful consideration of both the crime and the defendant, we conclude that the sentence of death imposed in this case was excessive and disproportionate. We therefore set aside the death sentence and remand for resentencing. .... The concept of individualized sentencing is firmly entrenched in modern American jurisprudence. The familiar maxim that punishment should fit the crime has been broadened to provide that punishment should also fit the criminal. With this in mind, we now turn our focus to the defendant as an individual, outlining those factors in Windsor's background and character which convince us that the death penalty was excessive in this instance. We begin by noting that Windsor, unlike the majority of capital defendants, has no formal criminal record nor significant history of prior criminal activity. There is no history of violent criminal activity, nor is there an indication that Windsor possesses any propensity toward violence. (Citation omitted).

The Court then reviewed other circumstances of Windsor personally, including her skills and abilities, her education, her experience and training, her troubled childhood and serious problems in her home environment. 110 Idaho at 422–23, 716 P.2d at 1194–95. The trial court described the crime in this case in the findings of the court in considering the death penalty: The Defendant Paul Ezra Rhoades ... was observed loitering around convenience stores in Blackfoot and Idaho Falls and watching the female employees. On February 28, 1987, the defendant entered [a convenience store] in Blackfoot, Idaho. He worked nearby as a drywaller and frequented the store, but on this evening, he stayed only a short time and then left. Near midnight he returned and at gunpoint robbed the till and forced clerk, Stacy Dawn Baldwin, age 21, into his pickup and drove her to a secluded spot near the Snake River just off Rose Road in Bingham County. He attempted to attack her, she fought back, and finally as she was on hands and knees trying to get away, he shot at her with his pistol. The first shots missed her and made glancing marks in the snow. Finally his shots hit her. One ricocheting bullet lodged in her elbow and one bullet went through her back and through her lungs. The tread on the soles of his boots left their imprint as he walked toward Stacy, but then he left while she was still alive. She lived for about 1 to 1 1/2 hours and then died alone in the cold.

The trial court described the defendant in this case in the findings of the court in considering the death penalty: The defendant, male caucasian, was born January 18, 1957. He is unmarried. Until incarcerated he lived with his parents.... He has a close relationship with his parents, two brothers and two sisters. He was born and raised in Idaho Falls, Idaho. He liked grade school, but he had other interests in junior and senior high school and he dropped out of school in the 9th grade. He attempted to enlist in the armed forces, but was rejected because of physical problems caused by polio during his early childhood. He went to work ... at 16 years of age, but was involved in an industrial accident and the tips of his fingers were cut off. When his fingers healed, the defendant went to work with his uncle and his father and later his brother in the drywall construction business. The defendant is considered an excellent craftsman. The defendant describes his interests as fishing and boating and reading “fantasy” novels.

The defendant denies any serious relationships or romantic ties with women, although he has numerous female friends. His mother describes him as responsible and easy going and a non-violent person that does not hold a grudge and who “never went out looking for trouble.” She points out that children liked him and that he was a “father image to children” in the neighborhood and those he babysat. The defendant suffered with polio at about age 4 and spent considerable time in the [hospital]. The illness necessitated that he have many operations on his feet and suffered considerable pain and as a result, the defendant is not well coordinated. His aunts and lady friends describe the defendant as being a very compassionate person who was responsible and trustworthy. One friend ... describes him as “being her big brother” who can listen to her and in whose presence she feels comfortable. .... He admits that he has abused alcohol and drugs.

The presentence investigation report indicates that Rhoades had a prior criminal record that included offenses of resisting and obstructing an officer, petit theft, inattentive driving, driving while suspended, infamous crime against nature, rape, kidnapping, first degree murder, use of a firearm in the commission of a felony, second degree murder and robbery. As directed by I.C. § 19–2827(c)(3) and the decisions of this Court interpreting it, I have reviewed the sentence of death imposed on Rhoades in this case compared to the penalty imposed in similar cases in which the sentence was imposed in 1975 or later, considering both the crime and the defendant, to determine whether Rhoades' sentence is excessive or disproportionate. For ease of reference, I append a summary of the cases I have compared.

The cases I find most similar to this one so far as the crime is concerned are: 1. State v. Pizzuto (death penalty imposed) 2. State v. Searcy (fixed life imposed) 3. State v. Lankford (death penalty imposed) 4. State v. Smith (fixed life imposed) 5. State v. McKinney (death penalty imposed) 6. State v. Fetterly (death penalty imposed) 7. State v. Bainbridge (fixed life imposed) 8. State v. Paradis (death penalty imposed) 9. State v. Sivak (death penalty imposed; vacated on procedural grounds; remanded for resentencing)

The death penalty was imposed by the trial court and upheld by this Court in the majority of these cases. On the basis of this comparison of these case in which the crime was similar to the murder in this case, I find the death sentence imposed on Rhoades in this case not to be excessive or disproportionate.

The cases I find most similar to this one so far as the defendant is concerned are: 1. State v. Pizutto (death penalty imposed) 2. State v. Searcy (fixed life imposed) 3. State v. Smith (fixed life imposed) 4. State v. Beam (death penalty imposed) 5. State v. Aragon (death penalty imposed)

The death penalty was imposed by the trial court and upheld by this Court in a majority of these cases. On the basis of this comparison of these cases in which the circumstances of the defendant were most similar to the circumstances of Rhoades, I find the death sentence imposed on Rhoades not to be excessive or disproportionate.

APPENDIX TO RHOADES (Baldwin) OPINION OF JOHNSON, J.

State v. Enno, 119 Idaho 392, 807 P.2d 610(1991). Eighteen-year-old male, suffered to a moderate degree from an anti-social personality disorder, severe alcoholic, troubled childhood. Defendant and victim were drinking together at a bar after which they traveled to a remote area where victim apparently made sexual advances toward defendant. Victim taunted defendant after he refused her advances which prompted defendant to choke victim until blood came out of her mouth. During the ensuing struggle victim and defendant ended up outside of the automobile after which defendant struck victim with a board and later repeatedly ran over her with the automobile. Defendant then burned the body of the victim with lighter fluid and charcoal. Fixed life. Affirmed.

State v. Pizzuto, 119 Idaho 742, 810 P.2d 680 (1991). Previously convicted of criminal sexual conduct and manslaughter in other states. Sociopath exhibiting “explosive features,” violent individual, expressed no remorse, history of violent behavior. Pizzuto robbed and murdered woman and her adult nephew in their cabin with a hammer, one of the victims was also shot, victims were buried in a shallow grave near the scene of the murders. Convicted of first-degree murder, felony murder, robbery. Death sentence imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Searcy, 118 Idaho 632, 798 P.2d 914 (1990). Troubled childhood, addiction to cocaine, psychiatric evidence indicating lack of mental responsibility. Committed various crimes to support chemical dependency. Defendant planned robbery of victim's grocery store in order to get money to buy cocaine. Defendant hid in store where he was later confronted by victim, a struggle followed during which defendant shot victim in the stomach. Defendant told victim that if she opened the safe, he would call an ambulance. Victim opened the safe after which defendant placed a rifle to her head and shot and killed her. Convicted of first- degree murder and robbery, sentenced to determinate life sentence on first- degree murder, indeterminate life sentence on robbery and enhancement of 10 years for use of firearm. Judgment of conviction affirmed, sentence imposed, remanded to trial court with instruction to impose sentence with defendant present.

State v. Paz, 118 Idaho 542, 798 P.2d 1 (1990), cert. denied ___ U.S. _____, 111 S.Ct. 2911, 115 L.Ed.2d 1074 (1991). Prior manslaughter conviction in Oregon, showed no rehabilitation after previous fines, probation, incarceration and parole, high probability that Paz would remain unpredictable and irrational in overreacting to confrontation and likely to kill fellow inmates if imprisoned. Shot and killed victim in restaurant after earlier engaging in verbal exchange with victim and two of victim's companions, companions seriously injured in shooting. First Degree Murder. Death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Smith, 117 Idaho 891, 792 P.2d 916 (1990). Chemical dependency, dominated by his brother (deceased accomplice), various prior criminal activity and outstanding warrants. Body of victim was discovered in a partially burned stolen Cadillac. Later, .22 and .38 caliber bullets were removed from the victim's body and fingerprints of defendant were found in the Cadillac. Convicted of first- degree murder, robbery, and third- degree arson. Fixed life sentence on conviction of first- degree murder and consecutive fixed- life sentence on robbery conviction. Affirmed.

State v. Lankford, 116 Idaho 860, 781 P.2d 197 (1989), cert. denied ___ U.S. _____, 110 S.Ct. 3295, 111 L.Ed.2d 803 (1990). Aggressive antisocial personality prone to violence. Defendant and brother robbed and murdered retired marine officer and wife while camping in Idaho County, victims held at gunpoint and killed with multiple blows to the skull from night stick. Convicted of two first- degree murders, death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Charboneau, 116 Idaho 129, 774 P.2d 299(1989), cert. denied 493 U.S. 922, 110 S.Ct. 287, 107 L.Ed.2d 267 (1989) and 493 U.S. 923, 110 S.Ct. 290, 107 L.Ed.2d 270 (1989). Defendant had previously committed several violent acts towards victim (his ex-wife), purchased rifle used in killing days before shooting. Defendant repeatedly shot former wife with .22 caliber rifle outside of her home. First-degree murder. Death penalty imposed. Conviction affirmed, sentence vacated because of consideration of victim impact statement, and remanded for resentencing.

McKinney v. State, 115 Idaho 1125, 772 P.2d 1219 (1989), cert. denied ___ U.S. _____, 110 S.Ct. 3292, 111 L.Ed.2d 800 (1990). Defendant claimed he was physically and sexually abused by his father as a child. Defendant and female companion devised a plan to rob and kill victim, a recent acquaintance, lured victim into the desert and shot execution style. See McKinney below. Along with first- degree murder also convicted of conspiracy to commit murder, robbery and conspiracy to commit robbery. Death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Fetterly, 115 Idaho 231, 766 P.2d 701 (1988), cert. denied 492 U.S. 925, 109 S.Ct. 3262, 106 L.Ed.2d 607 (1989). Prior criminal record. Along with co-defendant Windsor, was convicted of first-degree murder, burglary and grand theft for the robbery and stabbing death of the victim whom they later dumped in the Snake River. Along with murder, convicted of burglary and grand theft. Death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Windsor, 110 Idaho 410, 716 P.2d 1182 (1985), cert. denied 479 U.S. 964, 107 S.Ct. 463, 93 L.Ed.2d 408 (1986). No formal criminal record or history of prior criminal activity, defendant cooperative, skills and ability which indicate defendant may ultimately be capable of maintaining employment and functioning as a productive member of society, troubled childhood. Along with co-defendant Fetterly, was convicted of first-degree murder, burglary and grand theft for the robbery and stabbing death of the victim who they later dumped in the Snake River. Windsor did not commit actual act of stabbing victim. First-degree murder. Death penalty imposed. Sentence of death vacated because sentence was excessive and disproportionate.

State v. Scroggins, 110 Idaho 380, 716 P.2d 1152 (1985), cert. denied 479 U.S. 989, 107 S.Ct. 582, 93 L.Ed.2d 585 (1986). No history of violent criminal conduct, inadequate upbringing, age 18 at the time of crime (mental age was 13.8 years), failed to develop mature responses to stressful situations. Defendant and co-defendant (Beam) were involved in the rape and subsequent murder of a 13-year-old female victim, the victim was drowned and throat was slashed, jury indicated that defendant committed only attempted rape and did not directly commit the crime of murder, defendant reported crime to the police. Convicted of first- degree murder and attempted rape, sentenced to death. Sentence vacated, sentence of death was excessive and disproportionate to penalty imposed in similar cases.

State v. Stuart, 110 Idaho 163, 715 P.2d 833 (1985). Defendant engaged in abuse of other women and their minor children prior to relationship with present girlfriend and her son, defendant had committed at least three prior rapes along with numerous examples of other violent behavior. Defendant convicted in the beating death of a three- year- old boy, the son of his live-in girlfriend, evidence of numerous incidences of physical abuse of victim prior to death. Convicted of murder by torture in first- degree. Death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Fetterly, 109 Idaho 766, 710 P.2d 1202 (1985), cert. denied 479 U.S. 870, 107 S.Ct. 239, 93 L.Ed.2d 164 (1986). See Fetterly above. First-degree murder. Death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Beam, 109 Idaho 616, 710 P.2d 526 (1985), cert. denied 476 U.S. 1153, 106 S.Ct. 2260, 90 L.Ed.2d 704 (1986) and 489 U.S. 1073, 109 S.Ct. 1360, 103 L.Ed.2d 827 (1989). The defendant abused drugs, was on parole for burglary when the murder was committed, had been exposed to and participated in prior sexually deviant behavior, had tortured animals, was impulsive, and lacked any adequate conscience. The victim, a thirteen- year- old girl, was handcuffed and raped, semen was found in her vagina and rectum, the victim's throat was slashed and the cause of death was listed as drowning. Convicted of first-degree murder, rape, death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Bainbridge, 108 Idaho 273, 698 P.2d 335 (1985). Evidence was admitted indicating defendant's behavior and thinking were suggestive of organic brain disfunction possibly caused or enhanced by a severe head injury from a motorcycle accident, defendant was viewed as being good natured and eager to please, hypersuggestable to the influence of others, reading and writing problem although not retarded, 10th grade education. Victim, a female cashier who was acquainted with defendant and Sivak, was shot several times and stabbed numerous times while working at gas station, victim was also sexually assaulted, defendant along with co-defendant (Sivak) robbed store. Defendant was convicted of first- degree murder and robbery, sentenced to two consecutive fixed-life sentences. Reversed and remanded for new trial because of various errors at trial.

State v. Aragon, 107 Idaho 358, 690 P.2d 293 (1984). At the time of the incident the defendant was calm, refused to aid the victim or seek help and began planning a cover-up of his involvement, past criminal record including charges of child abuse and assault with a deadly weapon, lack of remorse over death of victim, no further description provided. Victim, eight- month- old child and daughter of defendant's female roommate died from severe blows to the head administered by defendant while victim was in bathtub. First-degree murder. Death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. McKinney, 107 Idaho 180, 687 P.2d 570 (1984), cert. denied ___ U.S. _____, 110 S.Ct. 3292, 111 L.Ed.2d 800 (1990). Defendant and female co-defendant (Small) were traveling from California through Idaho planning to hitchhike through Montana or Canada, no further description of defendant provided. Defendant repeatedly shot victim, a recent acquaintance, with .22 caliber pistol after driving to an abandoned gravel pit presumably for target practice, victim was also robbed and car was stolen. The killing was done in a cold-blooded and callous fashion, sole motive was monetary gain, victim shot in the body and killed, execution style. Convicted of first- degree murder, conspiracy to commit murder, robbery, and conspiracy to commit robbery, death sentence imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Paradis, 106 Idaho 117, 676 P.2d 31 (1983), cert. denied 468 U.S. 1220, 104 S.Ct. 3592, 82 L.Ed.2d 888 (1984). Member of Spokane motorcycle gang, no further description provided. Male and female victims, who both were acquainted with co-defendants, were seen together before their van was later seen driving up a sparsely populated mountain road in Idaho. Three men were later seen leaving the sparsely populated area, including in the three men was defendant. The bodies of victims were later found. Male had been beaten severely around the head, female had been strangled and placed in a stream bed, it was determined that male was killed in Washington while female was killed in Idaho. Defendant was acquitted of the murder of male and extradited to Idaho for the murder of the female. First- degree murder. Death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Gibson, 106 Idaho 54, 675 P.2d 33 (1983), cert. denied 468 U.S. 1220, 104 S.Ct. 3592, 82 L.Ed.2d 888 (1984). Extensive prior criminal record, capable of manipulation, remorse is questionable, background includes extensive use of drugs and/or alcohol, not able to cope with pressure and may act out against society again, dishonorable discharge from service, uncooperative while on prior probation. See Paradis above, defendant acquitted in murder of male, extradited to Idaho for murder of female. First- degree murder. Death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Sivak, 105 Idaho 900, 674 P.2d 396 (1983), cert. denied 468 U.S. 1220, 104 S.Ct. 3591, 82 L.Ed.2d 887 (1984); 112 Idaho 197, 731 P.2d 192 (1986); 119 Idaho 320, 806 P.2d 413 (1990). Defendant by prior conduct and conduct in the commission of the murder at hand has exhibited a propensity to commit murder which will probably constitute a continuing threat to society, defendant dominated his co-defendant, defendant had previously worked at the gas station and knew victim, had expressed prior animosity. See Bainbridge above. Defendant was found to have delivered the death blows to victim. Convicted of first-degree murder, robbery, possession of a firearm during commission of felony, death penalty imposed. Sentence vacated on procedural grounds; remanded for resentencing.

State v. Creech, 105 Idaho 362, 670 P.2d 463 (1983), cert. denied 465 U.S. 1051, 104 S.Ct. 1327, 79 L.Ed.2d 722 (1984). Defendant previously convicted of other murders, exhibited utter disregard for human life, propensity to commit murder, under sentence for first-degree murder at the time of his actions. While working as a janitor in prison, defendant engaged in argument with a fellow inmate. Defendant struck fellow inmate with sock containing batteries causing severe head injury and ultimate death of victim. First- degree murder. Death penalty imposed. Affirmed.

State v. Major, 105 Idaho 4, 665 P.2d 703 (1983). Married, two children, heroin user. Defendant and male victim had been drinking together in a local bar, defendant and victim left and went to victim's home, the body of the victim was found approximately three days later in his home, victim died from multiple stab wounds including numerous slashes to the throat. Defendant and his wife fled to California, were later arrested and extradited to Idaho. First- degree murder. Fixed life. Affirmed.

State v. Mitchell, 104 Idaho 493, 660 P.2d 1336, cert. denied 461 U.S. 934, 103 S.Ct. 2101, 77 L.Ed.2d 308 (1983). Wife of victim, user of prescription drugs and alcohol. Although it was initially suspected that victim had been murdered by strangulation during a burglary of victim and defendant's home, defendant later convicted in the contract killing of her husband. First-degree murder. Indeterminate life sentence. Affirmed.

State v. Olin, 103 Idaho 391, 648 P.2d 203 (1982). Defendant had a history of family and physical problems which inhibited his ability to learn, verbal skills tested in the dull normal range, I.Q. tested in the dull normal to high normal range, psychiatrist report indicated defendant was competent to stand trial, defendant had an aversion towards homosexuals. Victim, a homosexual male, was stabbed 33 times, defendant claims victim made homosexual advances towards him, defendant took and sold some of the victim's property after the murder. Convicted of grand larceny and first- degree murder. Defendant appeals conviction for first- degree murder, affirmed, sentence not specified in opinion.

State v. Osborn, 102 Idaho 405, 631 P.2d 187 (1981). Employed at Pocatello cafe, co-worker of victim, seen together in hotel the day before murder and together in an automobile on the day of the murder. Evidence of intoxication on the day of murder, found competent to stand trial, history of antisocial behavior and alcohol/drug abuse. Defendant and victim, a female co-worker, observed in hotel room the evening before the murder took place, stopped by police officer on the day of the murder after which the police officer instructed victim to drive the automobile because of defendant's intoxicated state, body of victim later found shot three times in the head, once in the shoulder and once in the abdomen, extensive bruising of face and fracture of her nose. Defendant later found in possession of a pistol with blood on his vest, chest and boots, blood in automobile, victim found partially clothed along side of a road. Defendant pled guilty to first- degree murder, death penalty imposed. Reversed and remanded for resentencing because of trial court's failure to specify in writing the mitigating factors it considered.

State v. Needs, 99 Idaho 883, 591 P.2d 130 (1979). Wife of victim, prior evidence of violent activity directed at victim. Body of victim discovered partially burnt, without head and arms, wrapped in a bed sheet and covered by a door. Death of victim caused by either gun shots, decapitation, or a slit throat. First-degree murder. Sentence of life imprisonment. Affirmed.

State v. Lindquist, 99 Idaho 766, 589 P.2d 101 (1979). Very intelligent and educated, construction engineer, hired by former employer to kill his wife in order to collect insurance proceeds. Lured victim to remote area under false pretext, beat victim on the head with a 2 x 4 wooden club, victim able to climb into the back of her car and lock the doors, defendant shot victim to death through the closed window of the car. Death penalty imposed. Also found guilty of lesser included offense of second-degree murder. Sentence and first-degree murder conviction set aside, second- degree murder conviction imposed, case remanded for resentencing because of unconstitutional language of statute requiring death penalty in first- degree murder cases.



In this April 9, 1987 photo, deputies escort Paul Ezra Rhoades from his appearance
in Bingham County Magistrate Court in Blackfoot, Idaho.
(AP Photo/Post Register, File)



Paul Ezra Rhoades



Paul Ezra Rhoades



Paul Ezra Rhoades


Idaho victims


Stacy Dawn Baldwin, 21.



Nolan Haddon, 20.



Susan Michelbacher, 34.
 

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